Author Ольга Кияница
All cardiac rhythm disturbances, medically designated as arrhythmias, can be conventionally divided into potentially unfavorable and those that under normal circumstances are not able to cause significant complications. The second group of diseases is often associated with inorganic cardiac pathology, since this organ is vital, although it is closely linked to other systems of the body. Therefore, any changes occurring in it, in one way or another, are reflected in cardiac activity.
In adults and children, heart rate is different: for the first - it is 60-90 times per minute, for the second norm - 100-120 times per minute, depending on age.
First of all, the vagus nerve affects the cardiac rhythm. His activity is manifested in the slowing of heart rate. The functioning of the nerve itself depends a lot on the process of breathing, so everyone could point out to themselves that a deep breath allowed the calming heartbreak to be restored. Also known is the phrase, which is said to all overexcited - "breathing deeper". Therefore, in medical practice it is customary to distinguish a form of rhythm disturbances, such as respiratory arrhythmia, it is dangerous whether this condition can be recognized by examining the subject in detail.
Description of respiratory arrhythmia
The mechanism of occurrence of respiratory arrhythmias is not connected with organic disorders of the heart muscle. In this condition, hemodynamic disorders that affect the general condition of the person and cause such complications as cardiogenic shock, edema, shortness of breath do not develop. Also, the heart rhythm during respiratory arrhythmias remains normal, sinusoidal. The only, on the ECG, lengthen RR intervals, which are associated with the exhalation phase. Therefore, respiratory arrhythmia can not be considered a violation of the rhythm by its very nature.
Respiratory arrhythmia is often referred to as sinus, since the main electrical pulse proceeds from the sinus node. It can be observed in a constant form or can be registered only during some ECG cycles.
Symptoms and causes of respiratory arrhythmia
It mainly manifests itself with a rapid heartbeat, especially at the moment of deep breath, and its slowdown in the process of exhalation. The presence of other symptoms may indicate the development of the pathology of other organs and systems of the body. For example, often with respiratory arrhythmia, vegetative vascular dystonia is diagnosed, therefore, along with an increased heart rate, complaints of increased sweating, sticky sweat, frequent freezing of the extremities will be presented.
In many cases, respiratory arrhythmias are asymptomatic, so many parents do not even realize that their children experience a heartbeat or other discomfort in the heart.
Respiratory arrhythmia is more common in children (newborns and infants) than in adults. This is due to the peculiarities of the child's organism, and in 6-7 years - with intense growth, when there is a rapid development of the heart and all other organs. In adolescence, the increased growth of the musculoskeletal system is carried out, therefore during preventive examinations it is often determined by the increased heart rate associated with periods of respiration. A child may complain about a quick fatigability, weakness, a periodic sensation of air shortage.
During pregnancy changes in the hormonal background, the functioning of the nervous and cardiovascular system.Similar factors, combined with increased cardiac load, in some cases lead to the development of respiratory arrhythmia.Then the woman can feel the difficulty in breathing, which after a while pass independently.
So when and what can be dangerous respiratory arrhythmia? Anxiety is needed when a child, pregnant or young person makes complaints of a heartbeat, causing severe discomfort or even pain in the heart area. Particular attention is required in the presence of violations from the work of the heart, which are determined by the ECG and other diagnostic methods.
Diagnosis of respiratory arrhythmia
When complaints are filed, a patient is examined, during which one can see pallor, cynicism near the nasolabial triangle.Further, while listening to the heart, you can often hear weaker tones on the background of rhythmic sinus cardiac activity.
To clarify the diagnosis, the best method is electrocardiography. It is started to be prescribed from one month and healthy children are encouraged to conduct a study about once a year.
When may additional diagnostic methods be required?
In the case of a combination of respiratory arrhythmias with noises in the heart, cyanosis around the nose and lips, pain in the cardiac region, ultrasound of the heart and Holter monitoring, or daily ECG are prescribed. On the ultrasound are clearly visible heart defects, other structural anomalies are determined, therefore this method is included in the list of dispensary examination, appointed from one month.
Adult population during prof. inspections are necessarily assigned to an ECG-control. The frequency of the study, as a rule, is once a year. If there are complaints other than arrhythmias, ultrasound of the heart is also prescribed.
Treatment and prognosis for respiratory arrhythmia
The basic principle of restoration of normal heart rate is normalization of everyday life. Parents should first of all understand that the child can attend dozens of circles and have every success in each classroom, but if an arrhythmia is observed in the background of intensive out-of-school development, then it is necessary to slow down the pace and properly adjust the mode of work and rest.
A cooking salt gives a definite load on the heart, so the amount of its use should be limited to 1.5 g per day. Also, the regulation of the water-drinking regime (on average 1.5-2 liters per day, depending on age) will help not to force the heart to work in an intensive mode. Such recommendations are especially important for pregnant women, even in the absence of any cardiovascular disease.
Young children, especially premature babies and babies, may have an over-excited nervous system. In such cases, in order not to aggravate the flow of arrhythmia, either a nursing mother should take calming herbal preparations or give the baby a soothing tea.
If respiratory arrhythmia does not cause health problems, then specific treatment is not required.
This condition has a favorable outlook. In the presence of only respiratory arrhythmias, without organic disorders, no complications arise. When diagnosing a rhythm disorder in a pregnant woman, delivery can be done naturally. The exception may be the presence of pathology from other organs and systems requiring a caesarean section.
It has already been noticed that respiratory arrhythmia does not require specific treatment in 90% of cases. However, in some cases, the patient, especially the child, may be shown to strengthen the heart muscle, for this purpose:
- vitamin preparations;
- general strengthening agents;
- immunostimulating recipes.
In this case, both the products of the pharmacological industry and popular methods of restoration of cardiac activity can be used.
Prevention of respiratory arrhythmia
Specific prophylaxis, however, as well as treatment, does not exist. Therefore it is recommended to carry out general reinforcement measures. From the medical point of view, they can be attributed to:
- performance of intensive physical exercises;
- maintaining a healthy lifestyle;
- Minimizing stressful situations.
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