Diagnostics of bradycardia

Vertical bradycardia

The location of the electrical axis of the heart can be arranged using electrocardiography. To do this, an electrocardiogram is performed, on which, in the standard direction, the heart is observed from 60 to 90 degrees. Signs of bradycardia are also seen on the ECG, because then the heart rate is less than the lower level of age.

Vertical bradycardia can be clinically weakly defined, so in some cases research methods such as strain tests are used. Also, information diagnostics is considered an ultrasound examination of the heart, when one can visually assess the condition of individual heart cells.

Video How to determine the heart rate and the electric axis of the heart .

Medicinal Bradycardia

Complete examination of the patient allows to determine the cause of the pathology and to correctly appoint her treatment. First of all, an electrocardiogram, which shows a decrease in the frequency of heart contractions, may be signs of an atrioventricular or other form of blockade. If necessary, Holter monitoring is performed, which helps to detect uncomplicated attacks of rhythm disturbance. In addition, ultrasound of the heart, coronary angiography and electrophysiological examination are performed.

Medicinal bradycardia may not have a pronounced picture, but it should diminish vigilance. In such cases it is possible to monitor heart rhythm at home and, if necessary, to deliver laboratory tests in the clinic or on a paid basis. After this, as a rule, the doctor can accurately conclude the condition of the cardiovascular system of the patient and prescribe the necessary medications.

Video Heart Diagnosis. Methods in cardiology: stress-echocardiography and portable cardiographs

Sinus bradycardia

You can determine the slowing of the rhythm by counting the pulse, which, at bradycardia, is 55 beats / min or less. Holter monitoring and echocardiography are performed to evaluate other cardiovascular abilities. Organic heart disease is detected by ultrasound examination.

Sinus bradycardia is not always accurately diagnosed using standard research methods. For this reason, they can additionally designate such types of diagnostics as bicycle ergometry, orthostatic test, Achner’s test. In the course of the survey, an electrophysiological study is important, which is mainly used in extreme cases.

Video Sinus bradycardia, what is it – cardiologist Elena Usenko. Healthy interest.

Neurogenic Bradycardia

If there is evidence, the patient advises the doctors of two specialties - a neurologist and a cardiologist. Subsequently, the examination is carried out by instrumental methods, first of all, by electrocardiography. On an electrocardiogram, as a rule, there are changes in the type of sinus arrhythmia: reduced number of cardiac contractions, undisturbed teeth P, T, ventricular complexes.

Non-pronounced seizures of neurogenic bradycardia are determined by Holter monitoring. If there are comorbidities, then necessary clinical analyzes are carried out, with the calculation of the level of hormones, cholesterol, glucose and other indicators.

Video Biochemical analysis of blood – decryption, table and norm

Ischemic bradycardia

The first diagnosis is possible at home, when the patient measures pulse on the radiation or carotid artery. When a stable condition is poor, a doctor is called, who listens to the stethoscope and makes a preliminary conclusion. In order to learn more about the form of rhythm disturbance, the location of the pathological focus, the presence of organic heart defects, electrocardiography is performed.

Ischemic bradycardia was previously determined by phonocardiography, which today is an outdated method of investigation. A more modern way is the ultrasound of the heart, an electrophysiological study. Depending on the indications, stress tests and clinical analyzes may be performed, especially on the concentration of ALT and AST.

Video About blood test AST and ALT

Extracardial bradycardia

The disease develops against the background of pathologies of other organs and systems, therefore, when examining with the help of electrocardiography, other changes, except for the reduction of heart rate, are not determined. Also, the presence of bradycardia can be evidenced by typical complaints of the patient In extracardiac bradycardia, functional capabilities of the heart may be impaired. Daily Holter monitoring is performed to clarify such disorders. Eliminating the presence of organic pathology of the heart can be done using ultrasound diagnostics. The general condition of the patient is assessed by clinical analyzes (blood, urine, ALT and AST).

Video Biochemical analysis of blood in norm and at a pathology

Vagus bradycardia

The disease has a direct relationship with the disorder of the nervous system, so the examination of the patient is not only a cardiologist, but also a neurologist. During the medical examination, characteristic signs of vagotonia are determined, pulse measurement indicating a slowed rhythm. Electrocardiography is also required, in order to clarify the localization of the pathological focus and more accurately determine the shape of the rhythm disturbance.

Vagus bradycardia is diagnosed using other research methods. In particular, a sample with atropine is performed, which makes it possible to distinguish bradycardia from various cardiovascular diseases. If the rhythm disturbance on the standard ECG was not fixed, Holter monitoring is used. In addition, if necessary, ultrasound heart and laboratory tests are performed.

Video of the ultrasound of the HEART

Hyperkalaemia and bradycardia

Electrocardiography is performed to assess the condition of the cardiovascular system. With a bradycardia, the ECG records a slowed rhythm (below 60 beats / min in adults), rhythmicity may change, signs of blockage or weakness of the sinus node are detected. If there is a patient's organic pathology of the myocardium, an ultrasound diagnosis of the heart is performed.

Hyperkalaemia and bradycardia can be diagnosed with laboratory tests. Their conduct is mandatory, because only in this way can determine the level of potassium in the blood, the amount of glucose, cholesterol, hormonal components in the serum of blood. An important consideration in the diagnosis of pathology is the evaluation of medications taken by patients, as well as the state of the urinary system.

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Pathological bradycardia

When there is uncomfortable sensation in the form of a heart stop, lack of air and the like, it is worth turning to the cardiologist for further research. In particular, lab tests are being conducted to help determine the main blood and urine values. It is important to use electrocardiography, which determines the form of rhythm disturbance, localization of the pathological focus, and the presence of hemodynamic changes.

Pathological bradycardia is often combined with other diseases, especially often with organic heart disease. Such disorders are well defined by ultrasound of the heart, coronary angiography can also be performed to assess the state of the heart vessels.Additionally, laboratory tests are performed (cholesterol levels, various lipoprotein forms, glucose, and other indicators are determined).

Video How to measure blood cholesterol levels

Paroxysmal bradycardia

During the onset of paroxysm, electrocardiography is performed, which shows a slow heartbeat, a change in rhythmicity. In some cases, a rupture disorder can not be detected by a standard ECG. Then for a patient one or two days (maximum - up to a week) it is recommended to wear a portable device that records the electrical activity of the heart throughout this time.

Paroxysmal bradycardia can be diagnosed with stress tests. This method is especially effective in the case of uncomplicated attacks that are initiated by physical exercises. In addition, ultrasound of the heart and coronary angiography are often prescribed, especially in the presence of concomitant illnesses in the patient (coronary heart disease).

Video Coronary artery of the heart vessels

Blind bradycardia

During the medical examination, signs of rhythm disturbance with complaint-specific illnesses are determined. To clarify the diagnosis, an electrocardiography is performed, which detects both bradycardia and atrial fibrillation. The slowing of the rhythm may be expressed in the weakness of the sinus node, blockade of different levels of education (sinatrial, atrioventricular).

Inverted bradycardia can be manifested by ECG in rhythmic disturbances, and the loss of teeth is often detected by changing the frequency of heart contractions in the form of an alternation, increased and reduced. If seizures are poorly expressed or not so frequent, Holter monitoring is performed to record a standard ECG. For a better assessment of the general condition of the patient, ultrasound of the heart and stress tests are performed.

Video Violations of the heart rhythm

Reflex bradycardia

If there is a complaint at the patient, the pulse and arterial pressure are determined at the doctor's appointment. After this, an electrocardiography is performed on which the heart rate of the heart rate is reduced. If it was not possible to accurately fix the pathology, Holter monitoring is used, with the help of which for a day or two it is possible to reliably recognize the form of rhythm disturbance (sinus bradycardia, atrioventricular blockade, etc.).

Reflex bradycardia may be associated with other diseases and in such cases additional research is required. This may be an ultrasound of the heart, loading texts, coronary angiography. The idiopathic form of the pathology is difficult to diagnose and then, in addition to instrumental diagnostics, long-term observation of the patient is involved.

Video Syndrome of the weakness of the sinus node

Sinusoidal bradycardia

Different research methods are used to confirm the diagnosis. Electrocardiography is performed first, then Holter monitoring, electrophysiological examination is performed. Additional methods of diagnosis are echocardiography and stress tests. Sinusoidal bradycardia can be a complication of another disease, and for diagnostics it is often necessary to pass clinical examinations. This diagnosis is especially important for hormonal disorders (with thyroid gland dysfunction). If necessary, consultations of doctors of related specialties (neurologist, therapist) are appointed.

Video Violations of the heart rhythm

Ventricular bradycardia

The first signs of the disease can be determined independently when experiencing pulse on the radiation artery. In this case, there is a decrease in rhythm, since the heart rate is 55 beats / min (in adults) and lower. If in children, then heart rate in the area of ​​60-70 beats / min (depending on age) also indicates bradycardia.

At the doctor’s appointment a more accurate definition of heart rate, blood pressure is performed, after which additional research methods are assigned. First of all – electrocardiography, which shows the slowing of the rhythm and other changes characteristic of ventricular tachycardia. To evaluate the condition of the ventricles, ultrasound of the heart is performed, coronary angiography. If the disease is difficult to diagnose, then a transesophageal electrophysiological study is performed.

Video of ultrasound of the heart or echocardiography