Violation of the rhythm may be manifested both in the increase in the frequency of heart rate and its decrease. In the latter case, it is a bradycardia that can be diagnosed at different ages. It is dangerous if this pathology is reliably indicated only after a complete examination of the patient.
Bradycardia is a Greek designation, which in translation means "slow" and "heart", which indicates a slow cardiac activity. There are several forms of bradycardia, among which only a few can cause an asystole, that is, a heart stop.
Bradycardia is included in the International Classification of Diseases of the tenth revision, in which it is assigned the code R00.1. According to accepted standards, in an adult, the heart rate should not fall below 60 beats / min.
The determination of the disease is done by electrocardiography and other methods of investigation. The final health outlook is made after a complete examination of the patient. The treatment involves various methods, including conservative and surgical procedures. In some cases it is enough for some time to take infusions of herbs, which necessarily coincide with the attending physician.
Video Facts about the heart. Bradycardia
Mechanisms of bradycardia development
Under bradycardia should be understood the right heart rate with heart rate in adults less than 60 beats / min, in children, depending on age less than 70-90 beats / min.
The formation of bradycardia is based on various mechanisms, some of which are connected with the main driver of the rhythm - the sinus node. Its location is determined in the mouth of the hollow veins (upper and lower), that is, in the right atrium.
Bradycardia can be considered as a variant of the norm if the heart is trained by regular physical activity. Therefore, athletes are often observed heart rate of less than 60 beats / min and yet they feel well.
Pathological bradycardia develops as a result of an abnormal operation of the sinus node or a violation of the conducting system of the heart. In the first case, for one reason or another, the impulse is not normally generated by the natural heart rhythm conductor, and in the second electric waves cease to fully spread throughout all parts of the heart, due to which the slow contraction of the atrium or ventricles is observed.
The main symptoms of bradycardia
Slow heart rate often manifests itself as follows:
- discomfort in the cardiac region;
- shortness of breath
In difficult cases, there is a semi-bad or faint state. Sometimes it becomes difficult for the patient to concentrate, there is absent-mindedness. Most often it becomes difficult to perform the usual work, especially the stress increases during physical stresses.
What is a bradycardia dangerous?
Bradycardia is not a danger only if a person regularly undergoes sports training and at the same time he does not experience unpleasant sensations in the cardiac region. Even there is such a notion as the "sports heart" introduced into the medical terminology by the German scientist S. Henschen. According to contemporary ideas, the athlete's heart is distinguished by adaptive and adaptive characteristics, which are formed as a result of exposure to significant myocardial stresses on the myocardium.
Athletes are often determined bradycardia of training, when the heart rate is less than 60 beats / min, most often from 40 to 50 beats / min.
In other cases, bradycardia is a rather dangerous condition, as it can provoke a cardiac arrest. Sometimes a slight decrease in heart rate indicates the development of the disease of other organs and systems of the body, which is often the case with thyroid dysfunction. Even a chronic slowing of the heartbeat brings a lot of discomfort to the person and significantly decreases the quality of life.
Pathological bradycardia: causes of development
In most cases, the pathology is associated with other diseases (extracardiac and cardiovascular):
- Destructive disturbances of electromotive pulse conductivity. This includes myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, angina pectoris, cardiomyopathy, inflammatory diseases, including myocarditis.
- Slow down of electric pulse. These can be states associated with inadequate thyroid activity, high blood pressure, syndrome of weakness of the sinus node.
Dependence of cardiac rhythm slowdown with a number of factors is observed:
- Age changes in the heart muscle, which begin to manifest after 45-50 years.
- The presence of bad habits in the form of alcohol abuse, smoking.
- Misuse of some medications that slow down cardiac activity during overdose.
Sometimes, the slowing of the rhythm is congenital, then talking about bradycardia in children. Also, modern diagnostic methods allow to determine fetal bradycardia, which can develop as a result of intrauterine effects on the child's external and internal factors.
Types of bradycardia
Depending on the mechanism of development, the following types of heart palpitations are distinguished:
- sinus bradycardia;
- Bradycardia due to the blockade of conduction of an electropump, which in turn is divided into: a disorder of sinavuricular conductivity and a disorder of atrioventricular conductivity.
Classification of bradycardia by severity of clinical signs:
- mild degree (heart rate from the lower age norm decreases by 10 beats / min);
- moderate severity (heart rate decreases by 20 beats / min from the lower age norm);
- strong severity (heart rate is lowered by 30 beats / min from the lower age norm);
May be inborn or acquired. In the first case, the clinic is weakly expressed. The second may experience shortness of breath or weak pulse during physical activity. Often observed athletes. The reasons for the appearance of sinus bradycardia may be the following: vagotonia, infectious diseases, cerebral lesions (brain tumors, meningitis, hemorrhages), shock reactions.
Violation of conductivity
Disorder of sinouricular conduction - Pathology is still known as a sinouricular blockade. Conductivity is disturbed in the area between the sinus node and the atrium. The emergence of a similar form of bradycardia can be suspected in the presence of inconstant heart rhythm coupled with its slowdown. In addition to the dysfunction of the conducting system, organic lesions of the heart are often observed.
Disruption of the atrioventricular conduction - occurs when a blockade occurs on the way of moving the pulse from the atrioventricular node to the ventricles. Often characterized by a significant reduction in heart rate - 40 beats / min or less. The blockade may be complete and partial, and a complete disturbance of conductivity is considered clinically unfavorable when impulses are poorly conducted from the AV node to the ventricles.
Complications with bradycardia
Allocate the following forms of complications arising from the background of a slow heartbeat:
- Paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia.
- Thromboembolism of the pulmonary artery.
- Ventricular extrasystoles.
- Ischemic stroke.
- Myocardial infarction.
The most dangerous complication is an asystole, that is, the cessation of cardiac activity. With prolonged absence of blood circulation, ischemia of the brain develops and as a result, clinical death.
Video Bradycardia. What is that What to do Tips for parents.
In general, the prognosis for bradycardia is favorable, if it proceeds in a mild form or equates to physiological. If, in addition to the slowed heartbeat, other cardiac diseases are observed, then immediate treatment should be performed, may require implantation of the pacemaker.