Causes of tachycardia
The disease is most often determined by organic pathology of the heart. First of all, it is diagnosed with myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, arterial hypertension, cardiomyopathy and heart failure. In the development of progressive tachycardia, predisposing factors are important. First and foremost, this is a frequent use of tinting drinks (coffee, alcohol, energy). Also, cardiac activity is affected by the wrong way of life, physical exhaustion, the presence of bad habits.
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There are several forms of the pathological condition, which are characterized by a connection with the activity of the autonomic department of the nervous system. Also, women are more likely to have a more pronounced clinical presentation of the impairment of rhythm than men. According to some studies, it was possible to conclude that spindle-shaped tachycardia often develops against the background of dysplasia of the connective tissue of the heart. Such violations obviously depend on gene predispositions, therefore one of the reasons for the occurrence of cardiac disorders is an unfavorable heredity.
There are reliable reasons for the development of spindle-shaped tachycardia, which is determined with a normal QT interval.First of all, this is a professional sport. The so-called athletic heart most often carries a presentation of a fast heartbeat. Other causes include arrhythmias and heart failure. The chronic course of the disease is characteristic of cardiosclerosis and cardiomyopathy.
Video cardiomyopathy is a general characteristic
Pathological condition is, in fact, complicated by other diseases, most often cardiovascular. The development of the heart beat involves the formation of ectopic foci, which begin to intensively generate pathological impulses. Pathological foci, in turn, are formed due to destruction, ischemia, dystrophy, inflammation of the heart muscle. Similar processes are observed in myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathies, coronary heart disease, myocarditis, heart disease, and therefore these pathologies are most often accompanied by a rapid heartbeat.
Flickering tachycardia is often diagnosed by lovers of overeating and drinking alcohol. Therefore, after hilarious holidays, an irregular accelerated heart rhythm often develops. Pathological condition is determined on the background of diabetes mellitus, thyrotoxicosis, hypertension. There are also a number of predisposing factors that provoke the development of flickering tachycardia. In particular, we are talking about excessive stresses, physical stress, smoking, misuse of certain drugs.
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The presented violation of the rhythm is a characteristic complication of many pathological conditions. It often occurs due to traumatic injuries, injuries, shock and allergic reactions. Such a designation is most often used in the intensive care unit because it is precisely in intensive care that special devices are installed that monitor the slightest changes in the patient's condition. When the heart rate reaches the upper limit of the permissible values, a signal signaling the development of an extreme heartbeat is triggered.
Extreme tachycardia is most often triggered by those states that are bordered by critical ones. First and foremost, this is a shock and collapse, with which the vessels sharply narrow and the heart begins to contract at a very fast pace (the heart rate depends on age). Especially expressed impairment of rhythm in organic heart disease: myocardial infarction, cardiogenic shock, acute heart failure, etc.
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Physiological sinus tachycardia
The presented rhythm disturbance is a normal reaction of the body, unless a rapid heartbeat is detected in a calm condition. The development of physiological sinus tachycardia can be facilitated by a variety of factors of influence. The most common are physical over-tension and emotional experiences. During their development, adrenaline is released, which accelerates cardiac activity. Physiological sinus tachycardia often develops when a microclimate is changed, when a person moves rapidly through a flight from one climatic zone to another. Or, a climb to a mountainous hill, on which there is a more rarefied air, is due to which the heart begins to contract more often, so that oxygen in the right amount entered into the brain. A few other mechanisms act with a sharp rise in body temperature or the use of cardiotonic medications, but as a result, as in the first case, the frequency of heart contractions increases.
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Pathology is a rapidly transient state, therefore, it is often not possible not only to identify the cause of its occurrence, but also to fix the violation of the rhythm itself. If such nevertheless succeeded, the provocative factor is often a strong emotional shock, physical exertion, a significant painful sensation.
Transient tachycardia is most often recorded in the intensive care unit, where it is possible to track any change in the patient’s condition. In such cases, it is possible to catch a rapid heartbeat due to the rarely rising temperature or jumps in blood pressure.Finally, as the cause of the rhythm disturbance, one should highlight the presence of bad habits, the use of alcohol and tonic drinks.
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Pathology is a combination of extrasystoles and tachycardia. Both types of rhythm disturbance are manifested most often in the following diseases: hyperthyroidism of the thyroid gland, osteochondrosis of the cervical spine, arterial hypertension, and disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Also severe infectious processes can cause the simultaneous appearance of extrasystole and rapid heartbeat.
Extrasystolic tachycardia is a frequent companion of various organic heart lesions. Cardiomyopathy, dystrophy, ischemia, inflammation of the heart muscle contribute to the creation of favorable conditions for the development of rhythm disturbance.Sometimes the patient may not know about the presence of cardiac pathology. In such cases, extrasystolic tachycardia acts as a unique marker, since studies are conducted and the main cause of cardiac dysfunction is determined.
At the heart of the formation of the present pathology is the splitting of the atrioventricular node, which causes the formation of pathological circulation of impulses. It is believed that such a defect is associated with the mutation of certain genes, such changes occur during the fetal development of the child. Today, researchers are looking for mutated genes that are responsible for the development of rhythm disturbance and possibly for other cardiovascular diseases.
Nodule tachycardia most often develops when exposed to the body of the following factors: experiencing frequent stress, lack of physical form maintenance or vice versa, physical overload. Also, smoking has an adverse effect on the heart and alcohol consumption, so patients with similar habits often develop heart palpitations and other cardiovascular diseases.
Atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (AVRT) and nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT)
Left ventricular tachycardia
It is the result of acute or prolonged diseases of the cardiovascular system. It manifests itself in various forms and to the end there are no known reliable reasons for the appearance of pathology. It is assumed that men at the age of 15-40 are at risk. To a lesser extent, paroxysms occur in the elderly. The left ventricular tachycardia is often manifested in a calm condition, although episodes of frequent heartbeat can be observed against a background of physical activity.
The provocative factors are often stressful situations, taking beta-agonists. With these pathologies, an ectopic focal point in the left ventricle is formed, from which extra impulses, circulating in the type of reentry, appear. Sometimes an overdose with digoxin also leads to left ventricular tachycardia, but the excitation wave in this case is formed due to an increase in automatism in the vicinity of the sheaths of Guillaume.
Video about tachycardia in 60 seconds
Implantation of the electrostimulator is considered the main cause of the appearance of the presented rhythm disturbance. It is also noted that if before the operation using an electrocardiogram the ventriculoatrial conduction was fixed, then the risk of formation of the paysmaker tachycardia is increased several times. Also, a certain type of cardiac disorder has a variety of implantable ECS, for example, with double-chamber localization of electrodes, a circular paetic mucus tachycardia is more common.
The provocative factor in the development of pacemaker tachycardia is the sharp increase in the threshold of stimulation or resistance, premature discharge of the battery of the device, breakage and change the location of the electrode dislocation. In some cases, there is a relationship between rhythm disorder and the development of pneumothorax, post implantation infection, and activation of the diaphragmatic nerve.
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In the development of various cardiovascular pathologies, structural and functional inhomogeneities can occur, which negatively affect cardiac activity, in particular, cause a sinatricular tachycardia. The propagation of the excitation wave, following from the main driver of the rhythm, begins to pass with greater intensity, which in turn manifests itself as a rapid heartbeat. The sinatricular tachycardia often develops against the background of lower myocardial infarction. Favorable conditions for the occurrence of rhythm disturbance are created by determining the patient's heart defects or coronary heart disease. At organic lesions of the heart, the probability of a sinoarthritic tachycardia is higher than with non-cardiac diseases.
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Often, the pathology is determined in childhood, with any signs of organic heart disease, as a rule, are absent. Concomitant vegetative disorders or psychological disorders may be observed. But most often, the change in cardiac activity is associated with heredity, as even during the fetal development, in the 40% of cases, the fetus is diagnosed with a rapid heartbeat.
The development of recurrent tachycardia is often associated with anemic conditions, congenital malformations of the heart, hyperthyroidism, dehydration. In a number of cases, it is not possible to establish a reliable cause of rhythm disturbance, then presumably indicate a psycho-emotional disorder, especially if the child is older than three years.
Video Fetal heartbeat early in pregnancy
The appearance of a rapid heartbeat is directly related to intercostal neuralgia. This pathology is an inflammation of the peripheral nerves that pass through the lower edge of the ribs. As the inflammatory process is accompanied by a pronounced pain syndrome, the sympathetic part of the nervous system is activated, which in turn provokes an increase in cardiac activity.
Since intercostal tachycardia depends on the occurrence of neuralgia, it is important to know why this pathology develops. The main causes include metabolic disorders, traumatic lesions of the thoracic vertebra or thoracic cavity, herpetic infection, aneurysm of the aorta. But most often, intercostal neuralgia appears due to acute muscle spasm, which is often caused by normal overcooling (drafts) after intensive work.
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Most often it occurs in the elderly, since after 55 years the physiological aging of the myocardium begins. The cardiac muscle becomes more susceptible to the influence of various factors, resulting in even poor nutrition or a sedentary lifestyle that can lead to coronary circulatory disorders and, as a result, ischemia with a rapid heartbeat. At the younger age, various ischemic changes in the myocardium also began to occur, but they are more often associated with psycho-emotional overload.
Ischemic tachycardia most often develops against the background of IBS, which in turn occurs due to the development of myocarditis, cardiomyodystrophy, heart defects, atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries, increased “density” of blood. It is important to know the risk factors that increase the likelihood of developing a rapid heartbeat due to ischemia. These include male sex, the presence of bad habits, burdened heredity with ischemic diseases, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, elevated cholesterol levels in the blood.
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This violation of cardiac activity is mainly associated with non-cardiac diseases, which, by activating the driver of the rhythm, in one way or another, affect the contractility of the myocardium. Such mechanisms may depend on the hormonal background, the functioning of the nervous system, the presence of bad habits (smoking, alcohol intake). First of all, it is worth mentioning the following reasons for the appearance of functional tachycardia, such as hyperfunction of the thyroid gland, tumor diseases of the gonorrhea secretion glands (adrenal glands, pituitary gland).
In the development of functional tachycardia, the nervous system and especially its autonomic department plays a significant role. In the presence of pathological conditions in the form of panic attacks, neuroses, sympathetic adrenal crises, prolonged depression often develops a rapid heartbeat. Therefore, the exclusion of these diseases helps to improve the general condition of the patient.
The Effects of the Vegetative Nervous System on the Heart
In the first place, it is necessary to highlight the main risk factors that create favorable conditions for the development of rhythmic tachycardia. Emotional overvoltage and physical activity often contribute to the occurrence of rhythm disturbances. There is also a high probability of an accelerated heartbeat in the presence of harmful habits in the form of smoking, alcohol intake and misuse of some medications (cardiac glycosides).
Rhythmic tachycardia is a complication of a number of organic heart lesions (heart defects, myocarditis). Some metabolic disorders associated with potassium and magnesium deficiency also lead to a rapid heartbeat. It is important to know that the most unfavorable pathologies in terms of rhythm disturbance are hyperthyroidism, hypertension, anemia, heart disease, myocardial surgery.
Video Violations of heart rhythm tachycardia
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ВVideos Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) – causes, symptoms & pathology
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Videos Animation of an Abnormal Heart Rhythm
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Videos WPW (Wolff-Parkynsona-White) syndrome
There are many pathological conditions in which an increase in the frequency of cardiac contractions with localization of ectopic foci in the atria is observed. First of all, rhythm disturbance is associated with cardiac diseases: coronary heart disease, hypertension, heart disease, cardiomyopathies, myocarditis. During the development of these pathologies, the structure of the heart and the normal functioning of the conducting system of the organ are violated, therefore the risk of development of various disorders of the rhythm, including tachycardia, is increased.
Supraventricular tachycardia can be the result of a disorder of the autonomic nervous system. In particular, an increase in the activity of the sympathetic department of the CNS leads to an increase in heart rate. Also, rhythm disturbances may be associated with other extracardial lesions: cervical osteochondrosis, misuse of some medications, bad habits (smoking, alcohol use).
Tachycardia as a symptom may occur on the background of various diseases, including vascular disorders. There are two large groups of factors contributing to the appearance of arterial tachycardia. The first one is hypertension, that is, heightened pressure in the circulatory system. The second is hypotonia, when in blood vessels the pressure of blood decreases. Hypertension can develop as an independent disease and is thus called hypertension. During hypertensive crises, in addition to increasing pressure, there is a rapid heartbeat, so in such cases it can be said about arterial tachycardia. In addition to arterial hypertension there are a number of diseases that also contribute to increased blood pressure and the appearance of tachycardia. This is pheochromocytoma, thyrotoxicosis, heart defects, coarctation of the aorta.
During hypotension, the compensatory mechanism is triggered in the form of a rapid heartbeat that helps maintain blood supply in vital organs. This often happens in acute processes – injuries, operations with blood loss, severe intoxications. There are also chronic processes, such as vegetative disorders and allergic reactions, accompanied by reduced pressure and, on its background, tachycardia.
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