In the normal state, the heart is reduced rhythmically, with approximately the same frequency, which at rest should be determined in the range of 60 to 90 beats / min. A similar indicator is typical for adults, since children have a higher heart rate, about 70-140 depending on age (the smaller the child, the higher the heart rate in the newborns in the range of 110-140 beats per minute).
Wikipedia notes that "arrhythmia is any rhythm of the heart that differs from the normal sinus rhythm (WHO, 1978)."
Sometimes such a violation can be considered as a variant of the norm, and then speak of a physiological arrhythmia. With its presence, even the army is not contraindicated. In other situations, the rhythm disorder is a pathology that, in the absence of adequate treatment, can lead to serious complications.
Video How is the heart set up?Cardiac Arrhythmia: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment
Normal cardiac activity
The human heart is divided into four chambers, two of which are filled with arterial blood, and two - venous. Upper sections are called atria, and the lower ones are ventricles. The blood flow moves from the veins through the atrium to the ventricles and then to the arteries. The promotion of blood in the indicated way occurs at the expense of cardiac contractions.
Providing timely contractions of the heart is engaged in a conducting system. Her main driver is the sinus node located in the upper right corner of the right atrium (more precisely, near the atrium's ears). An electrical pulse generated by this small group of cardiomyocytes is transmitted through the fibers of the left atrium, and further down to the atrioventricular node below, passing through the bundle of Giss and Purkinje fibers to the ventricles. Thus, the atria, and then the ventricles, are first reduced.
A trained heart, for example, in people who love sports, can contract less frequently than an ordinary person. This is due to the increased mass of the myocardium due to constant sports exercises. This allows the heart to make more powerful releases to the bloodstream. Therefore, in such cases, the heart rate can be 50 bp / min or less, while it will be considered a variant of the norm as it does not cause negative consequences.
In the case of rhythm disorder, Wikipedia indicates that "the term" arrhythmia "combines various mechanisms, clinical manifestations, and prognostic impairments in the formation and conduct of an electrical impulse."
The disease is often associated with cardiological pathologies, which are characterized by a change in the structure of the organ (destruction, ischemia, hypotrophy, etc.). Disorder of rhythm most often acts as a complication with insufficient activity of the heart, ischemic disease, cardial myopathies, congenital and acquired defects, inflammation of the myocardium.
When exposed to some drugs, arrhythmias also occur. In particular, incorrect use of cardiac glycosides, diuretics, sympathomimetics, antiarrhythmic drugs with proarrhythmic action can lead to disturbed rhythms of varying degrees of severity.
In some cases, the consequences of a simple lack of certain trace elements are expressed by the development of arrhythmia. This is the most common case of hypocalemia, hypomagnesaemia, hyperkalaemia and hypercalcemia.
It is worth remembering the obvious harm of bad habits such as smoking, drinking alcohol and drugs. Such substances can exert a toxic effect on the heart and blood vessels. As a result, unwanted consequences in the form of not only arrhythmias, but also more severe diseases.
Every year, the diagnosis of "arrhythmia" is increasingly exhibited by patients of various age categories, which is primarily associated with risk factors. Arrhythmias are sick adults and children. Identification of this or that cause of the disease is at the heart of various diagnostic and screening tests. Also, their competent use allows for effective prevention.
- Genetic predisposition. Some arrhythmias, like Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome, are hereditary diseases. Others are related to congenital malformations.
- Pathology of the thyroid gland. This endocrine organ seriously affects the work of the heart. The thyroid gland produces hormones that accelerate or slow down metabolic processes in the body. Accordingly, in case of thyrotoxicosis, a tachycardia occurs, and in the case of insufficient work of the organ, bradycardia.
- Arterial hypertension. Increased pressure in the blood vessels threatens an ischemic heart disease, which in turn is often complicated by a rupture disorder.
- Episodes of hypoglycemia. Temporary reduction of glucose concentration in the blood can promote the development of arrhythmia. When decompensated diabetes mellitus, hypertension and coronary heart disease arise, and the like also leads to cardiac disturbance.
- Overweight. Such a condition often becomes the cause of hypertension, IHD and other pathological disorders. In addition, the increased body mass itself puts an additional burden on the heart, thus contributing to a rapid heartbeat.
- Increased cholesterol in the blood. This indicator should be especially carefully scrutinized in people 55 years of age and older when the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, including arrhythmias, is increased.
- Anemia - lack of iron provokes the development of hypoxia of various tissues, including cardiac. This in turn leads to a rhythm disorder.
- Hormonal imbalance - in women with climacteric symptoms, extraordinary contractions and other manifestations of arrhythmias are most often observed.
- Osteochondrosis - a violation of the structure of the spinal column leads to compression of the nerve roots, which in turn contributes to the development of vegetative regulation disorders (includes the vagus nerve and sympathetic nervous system). First of all, this kind of activity suffers from this kind of thing.
Arrhythmia manifests itself in various forms, therefore, the clinic depends on the specifics of the course of the disease.Yet there are general manifestations characteristic of all types of rhythm disturbance:
- A feeling of cardiac failure.
- Changes in heart rate.
- Vegetative disorders (weakness, feeling of warmth, coldness of the extremities).
- The appearance of fear and anxiety.
In severe cases, the signs listed include heart pains, premature and fainting conditions. It can also be determined by the pallor of the skin, increased or decreased arterial pressure.
Characteristic features of individual forms of arrhythmia:
- With different types of tachycardia, when even the army is contraindicated, an increase in the frequency of heart contractions is determined. In particular, an increase in heart rate of 150 beats / min is typical for atrial fibrillation, and when combined with heart rate of 400 beats / min with loss of consciousness, often ventricular fibrillation is diagnosed.
- Bradycardia is characterized by slowing the rhythm, that is, in adults, the heart rate is diagnosed below 50 uah / min.
- Extrasystole is manifested by fading the heart and extraordinary cardiac contractions.
- Heart blockade is expressed by severe violations of the general condition of the patient. In particular, seizures, fainting, absence of pulse are determined.
Video The first symptoms of heart problems that should not be ignored
Types of arrhythmias
Different types of rhythm disturbance can be considered as arrhythmia, therefore, in most classifications, the following groups are distinguished:
- The disorder of automatism is to distinguish several subgroups: nomotopnye, when the rhythm driver is a sinus node (sinus tachycardia, respiratory and non-respiratory sinus arrhythmia, sinus bradycardia, syndrome of weakness of the sinus node) and heterotopic when another driver of the rhythm is determined, than the sinus node (iivoventricular, lower atrial and atrioventricular rhythm).
- Disturbance to excitability - the paroxysmal tachycardia (possibly ventricular, atrioventricular and supraventricular) and extrasystole (most of which are related to the source, source, time of occurrence, frequency and order) are associated with it most often.
- Conduction disorder - options for increasing the conductivity (found in the WPW syndrome), as well as its reduction (typical for blockade of different localizations) are considered.
Depending on the severity of the flow of this or that arrhythmia, the army is either contraindicated or a young person is allowed to serve in line.
In some cases, mixed arrhythmias occur when, besides the extrasystole, a condition such as atrial fibrillation is diagnosed. Or the tremor of the atrium is combined with the ventricular thrill.
Screening and diagnostics
Violation of cardiac rhythm is done by a cardiologist, who at first receives a poll of a patient and an external examination.Subsequently instrumental examination, laboratory tests, consultations of related specialists are appointed.
Almost all cardiologic patients, without exception, are prescribed electrocardiography, which in most cases allows you to identify many forms of arrhythmias. For each case, its ECG symptoms are characteristic:
- Sinus tachycardia - other than the increase in heart rate, other changes in the rhythm are not determined.
- Sinus bradycardia - there is a decrease in the heart rate in relation to the age norm.
- Sinus arrhythmia - the heart rate increases, decreases or remains normal, while the rhythm becomes incorrect.
- Syndrome of weakness of the sinus node - there is a constant decrease in sinus heart rate, sometimes the sinus rhythm disappears, while sinoaruricular blockades are periodically recorded. Also, tachycardia-bradycardia syndrome can be diagnosed on an ECG.
- Heterotropic arrhythmias are manifested by changes in the frequency of heart rate and rhythm, which are most often non-sinus. At idioventricular rhythm, heart rate is 20-40 beats / min, and with atrioventricular 40-60 beats / min.
- Extrasystole - is determined in case of occurrence of ECG extraordinary abbreviations, which can be single, pair, multiple. Also, this form of arrhythmias is characterized by an incomplete compensatory pause. Depending on the source of excitation, changes may be noted in the atria, atrioventricular node, ventricles.
- Paroxysmal tachycardia - appears suddenly, with the heart rate can reach 150 bpm and higher.
- Cardiac blockade - determined by the occurrence of complexes of the corresponding localization, with a weak pronounced pathology, only a slowing of the rhythm may be observed.
- Atrial fibrillation - heart rate per minute is 150-160 auks., While the ventricular complexes do not change, and the rhythm becomes non-sinusoid.
In addition to electrocardiography, other passive methods of research are used. This can be Holter monitoring, ultrasound of the heart (echocardiography). If arrhythmia attacks occur rarely and they are not recorded on the ECG, then inductive tests are applied:
- Physical exercise tests - an exercise bike or treadmill is used for this, while the ECG is recorded in parallel.
- An oblique table test is often used with frequent and groundless pre-dysmotility and fainting conditions. For this patient, they are fixed to the table, which, after removing the indicators horizontally, is translated into vertical and again records the heart rate and arterial pressure.
- Electrophysiological study - conducted with the purpose of determining arrhythmogenic focal point, also if possible, it is being eliminated. Often used for atrial fibrillation.
In the presence of severe arrhythmia, antiarrhythmic therapy is used. Their reception is possible only with the consent of the attending physician, as otherwise there may be undesirable consequences.
Groups of antiarrhythmic drugs used in arrhythmias:
- Drugs that affect the conductive heart system. This group includes cardiac glycosides, beta-blockers. Due to this action, the heart rhythm slows down, so they are more often used for tachycardia and atrial fibrillation.
- Direct antiarrhythmics - affect the permeability of the ion channels, which in turn reduces the frequency of heart contractions. The list of drugs from this group is amiodarone, valapenin, rhythmnorm, and others.
General recommendations include the following:
- With the tendency to form blood clots try to treat thrombolytic drugs, including cardiological aspirin, clopidogrel and other similar drugs prescribed by a doctor. Also, the inclusion in the diet of the seed of flax, garlic, celery, parsley contributes to the dilution of blood.
- Cardiac muscle is able to strengthen mildronate, rixoxine, ATP. The doctor may prescribe other drugs widely used in cardiology practice. Including it is useful to eat seeds, nuts, dried fruits, fish.
- If arrhythmia is a complication of another disease, treatment is first and foremost, thus allowing the use of cardiological drugs to eliminate arrhythmia attacks.
Prolonged treatment for arrhythmias involves careful compliance with medical recommendations, thereby reducing the likelihood of recurring attacks. In complex cases where conservative means can not achieve the desired effect, they resort to implantation of the pacemaker or radiofrequency catheter ablation.
Popular methods of treatment
An unconventional type of therapy can be used in combination with a conservative treatment regimen. In some cases, when the attacks of rhythm disturbance are not strongly expressed and there are no other cardiological disorders, they try to treat only plant-based medications. In any case, treatment with folk remedies is pre-agreed with the doctor, otherwise there may be disastrous consequences.
- Adonis spring - among the great variety of preparations of the green pharmacy has shown its high efficiency, the only one, it is used with caution and no more than two weeks, then a break for the same period. For treatment, take tincture, which is taken for 15 drops three times a day. Adonis is a cardiac glycoside, therefore it is taken in conjunction with diuretics.
- The violet is three-colored - it's also known as the "pseudobles". Suitable dried grass is suitable for use, which is in the amount of 2 tsp. brew a glass of boiled water. After insisting for several hours, the infusion is ready to receive 2 tablespoons. l up to three times a day. It is important not to overdose the medicine as nausea and vomiting may develop.
- Inflorescences of sourness - are used for the treatment of rhythm disturbances in the form of infusion, which is prepared from a glass of boiling water and a tablespoon of the plant. The medicine should be vaccinated, considered ready for use after cooling.
- Asparagus is known to a few, although with the help of its shoots and rhizomes it is possible to calm down cardiac activity and normalize the rhythm. The specified ingredients should be finely chopped, from a total amount taken a tablespoon of mixture and poured a glass of boiling water. Then for three hours, the medicine insists on warmth and then taken in a small amount several times a day. Thus, it can be treated for several months, but with interruptions for 10 days every three weeks of admission.
- Hawthorn - this plant has been widely proven in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Basically, flowers are taken, but the fruits of the plant can also be used. A glass of steep boiling water takes a few tablespoons of flowers or fruits.Brewing usually takes about 20 minutes, then you can drink tea.
In some cases, it is recommended to take garlic from arrhythmia, but this product is far from suitable for everyone, especially for those with a stomach ache. Pregnancy is not contraindicated for taking fresh garlic, but everything should be in order. Honey can also have a beneficial effect on the heart, but only if there is no allergy.
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When visiting a doctor, some patients complain that after a meal they have a frequent heartbeat or a feeling of jumping out of the heart from the chest. All these are symptoms of arrhythmia, but can it really manifest itself after a meal, and if so, what are the causes of this pathological condition?
Rhythm disturbances are often associated with various diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, which in such cases act as a primary disease. Research in this direction has been going on for many years and today there is a clear link between GI disorders like GERD and cardiovascular system.