Author Ольга Кияница
Ventricular bradycardia is a pathological condition in which the reduction of the heart rate is below the age standard. Adults are determined at 40 beats / min and below. In this definition, the connection between bradycardia and the ventricles is noted, since during the study changes in the functioning of the ventricles may be detected.
In the International Classification of Diseases, there is no such definition as ventricular bradycardia, so this term is considered more clinical than conventional.
Different research methods are used to determine rhythm disturbance. Electrocardiography is obligatory. Laboratory tests are also performed to determine concomitant illnesses. For a more detailed study of the topic presented, it is suggested to view the video.
Video Facts about the heart. Bradycardia
Description of ventricular bradycardia
Different mechanisms are involved in the formation of the slowed heartbeat. In some cases, an impairment of the functioning of the conducting system of the heart is observed, in others - organic damage to the heart muscle.
Common Bradycardia Options:
- Absolute - regardless of the circumstances in which the patient is located, and the actions of irritating factors in one form or another, a slow heartbeat is observed.
- Relative - depends on the influence of external factors. It is often found in various conditions: fever, physical overwork, overeating, inadequate functioning of the thyroid gland, meningeal processes. This includes the "bradycardia of an athlete".
- Moderate - often found in respiratory arrhythmias, while at the height of inhalation the heartbeat increases, and during exhalation it becomes narrowed. A similar variant of the course of bradycardia is characteristic for children, adolescents, people with increased activity of the sympathetic department of the nervous system.
- Extracardial - develops against the background of diseases of the internal organs (inflammatory processes, infectious pathologies, myxedema and disorders of the nervous system).
Symptoms of ventricular bradycardia
The disease has no characteristic manifestations, therefore, most patients complain of the following character:
- feeling of weakness, discomfort in the area of the heart;
- dizziness or fainting conditions;
- reduced working capacity or unsuccessfulness at school;
- increased sweating, sticky cold sweat;
- flashing flies in front of the eyes.
Sometimes the violation of the rhythm does not manifest itself, then determine the disorder is obtained during another preventive examination. In such cases, despite the harmless, at first glance, the clinic still has the risk of complications.
Dangerous conditions associated with ventricular bradycardia:
- Unstable arterial pressure or its increase.
- Sudden cessation of cardiac activity.
- Ischemic heart disease, especially increased risk of angina pectoris.
- Heart failure, often all in a chronic course.
- The attacks of Morgani-Edams-Stokes, which are expressed in a sudden loss of consciousness.
Causes of ventricular bradycardia
Pathology is often associated with dysfunction of the conducting system, as well as other structural units of the heart muscle. In adulthood, rhythm disturbance develops most often for the following reasons:
- Disruption of the sinoarthritis node - often occurs in the form of syndrome weakness of the sinus node or sinus bradycardia.
- Violation of the functioning of the atrioventricular node is often expressed in blockages, which differ in degrees of severity. The most unfavorable is a complete blockade, with a high risk of cardiac arrest.
- The dysfunction of the conducting system of the heart, which after the CA-node and the AV node is represented by the Guillaume sheath and the Purkinje fibers, is often determined in coronary heart disease, when the affected cardiomyocytes form areas that do not conduct electropulses.
In addition to the above-mentioned diseases, pathologies such as post-infarction cardiosclerosis, angina pectoris, arterial hypertension, coronary syndrome may occur. Also, bradycardia can be a consequence of a number of non-physiological conditions: intoxication, poisoning, starvation, the use of certain drugs can cause a slowdown in cardiac activity.
In children, bradycardia occurs for the following reasons:
- congenital anomalies of the development of the heart and blood vessels;
- previously infectious diseases;
- increased body growth;
- irrational nutrition.
The exact cause of the development of ventricular bradycardia can only be established by the cardiologist, so at the first occurrence of disturbing symptoms should consult a specialist.
Diagnosis of ventricular bradycardia
At the reception of the doctor there is a collection of complaints, an objective examination, an auscultatory listening of cardiac activity. Then a number of instrumental studies are carried out:
- Holter monitoring;
- laboratory tests;
- Ultrasound of the heart;
- coronary angiography.
The following symptoms are usually detected by ECG:
- the heart rate is 10-15% less than the age norm;
- atrioventricular or sinoroarthritic blockade.
Some forms of blockade are difficult to determine by daily and standard electrocardiography. In such cases, they resort to transesophageal electrophysiological examination. With this method, the exact nature of the bradycardia, whether organic or functional, is established.
Treatment and prevention of ventricular bradycardia
There are several tactics for treating bradycardia, including ventricular:
- The use of preventive measures - is suitable for those patients who do not complain rhythm disorder, but during the examination, the slowing of the rhythm is determined.
- Therapy of the basic pathology, which contributed to the development of slowing down the rhythm.
- Symptomatic treatment - in the presence of subjective intolerance to the slowed-down rhythm or pronounced clinic, which negatively affects the state of health of the patient.
The purpose of medical treatment is the cardiologist. With his consent, ephedrine, caffeine, isoprenaline, and eleutherococcus extract may be used. In severe cases, a pacemaker is implanted in order to prevent the risk of sudden cardiac arrest.
The prevention of bradycardia consists in the implementation of simple recommendations:
- control of blood pressure;
- regular checking of heart rate;
- Proper nutrition when foods contain fewer fats and salt;
- abandoning bad habits of taking alcohol and smoking;
- timely rest with daily exercise of moderate physical activity.
In addition, the cardiologist should have regular examinations, which are often done once a year.