VVD in children: symptoms and treatment

Author Ольга Кияница

2018-05-15

Vegetative-vascular dystonia is extremely common today in both adults and children. Even advanced research methods do not allow reducing the prevalence of the disease. With this pathology, the tone of the blood vessels is disturbed, which leads to a change in the activity of various organs and systems of the body.

A condition in which vascular tone is "unbalanced" due to dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system is defined as vegetative-vascular dystonia (VVD). Pathology is accompanied by a number of characteristic symptoms from the field of the nervous, endocrine, digestive and cardiovascular systems. Up to three years, the disease is not manifested, after the girls are most susceptible to the disease.

If there is a suspicion that the child has this disease, you should immediately consult a doctor. In the future, the disease can lead to various complications such as bronchial asthma, stomach ulcers and hypertension.

When the patient is examined, the causes of the disease, its main symptoms and possible risk factors are determined.Particular attention is paid to the prevention and treatment of dystonia. VVD in children is manifested by intensive reduction of the bloodstream - hence many systemic disorders. Often VVD is diagnosed in clinically healthy children.

Video: Dr. Komarovsky Vegeto-vascular dystonia

Features of the autonomic nervous system in children

  • Structural and functional characteristics.

The autonomic nervous system (VNS) in newborns is characterized by its immaturity. The process of formation of the ANS occurs during the child's growing up. For this reason, the reactions do not proceed as fast as in adults, there is a gradual maturation of synapses (joints) of the nervous system.

Neonates have spontaneous neuronal activity, since their membrane is more permeable to sodium ions. Biological substances and impulses coming from the central nervous system play an important role in the maturation and formation of the function of peripheral ganglion cells.

The main features of the VNS in the first years of development:

  • excessive excitability;
  • lack of stability of vegetative system reactions;
  • severe severity of symptoms and rapid arousal.

In children, especially in infancy, there is an instability in the functions of the VNS, especially the heart rate and respiration rate. The stability of vegetative reactions begins to form in the second year of the child's life.

  • The process of maturation of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves.

In children of the first years of life the key role in the regulation of the functions of internal organs is performed by the sympathetic department of the autonomic nervous system. The parasympathetic department begins to be included in the reflex reactions from the third month of life. At the age of 3 years, the influence of the vagus nerve is sufficiently pronounced to begin to appear respiratory arrhythmia, but the prevailing influence of the sympathetic nervous system persists until the age of 7 years. However, despite the fact that in newborns the tone of the vagus nerve is still weak, during this period it is possible to observe Ashner-Dagnini's eye-heart reflex.

  • The mechanism of tone formation.

In the formation of the tone of the vagus nerve, afferent impulses from various reflexogenic zones, including proprioceptors, play an important role. This confirms the fact that the lack of movement in children is accompanied by an insufficient expression of the tone of the vagus nerve.

Important in the formation of the tone of the vagus nerve is the impulse from the baro- and chemoreceptors of vascular reflexogenic zones. Maturation of the central and peripheral parts of the vegetative and somatic nervous system leads to the formation of the tone of all parts of the central nervous system, including sympathetic and parasympathetic centers.

Cardiac reflexes and dermography are used to assess the severity of the tone of the VNS departments in children.

  1. Heart reflex - pressure on the eyes within 20-60 seconds causes a slowing of the pulse, lowering of arterial pressure, slowing of breathing. The reflex manifests itself quickly (in 3-5 s) or slowly (after 8-10 s). The effect is considered positive if the impulse is slowed by 4-12 beats per minute, and sharply positive - by more than 12 beats.
  2. Dermografichesky reflex - irritation of the skin with strokes causes after 5-10 seconds the appearance of white or red stripes. The disappearance of the white bands is observed after 5-12 seconds, while the redness begins to decrease after 3 minutes. The intensity of expression and the duration of the preservation of the white bands indicate an increase in the tone of the sympathetic part of the center of the circulation, and the red ones indicate a decrease in its activity.

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What is the VVD?

Vegeto-vascular dystonia (VVD) are symptoms of various clinical manifestations that affect all kinds of organs and systems. As a result, deviations occur in the structure and functions of the central and / or peripheral parts of the autonomic nervous system.

Vegeto-vascular dystonia is not an independent nosological pathology, but together with other pathogenic stimuli it can provoke the development of many diseases and conditions, most often based on psychosomatics (arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease, bronchial asthma, peptic ulcer, etc.). Vegetative changes determine the development and course of many diseases in childhood. In turn, any disease, including somatic can potentiate vegetative disorders.

Classification of vegetative-vascular dystonia

Until now, the traditional classification of vegetative-vascular dystonia has not been developed. During the formulation of the diagnosis, as a rule, the following are taken into account:

  • causal factors;
  • type of vegetative disorders (vagotonia, sympathicotonia, mixed);
  • the prevalence of vegetative disorders (general, systemic or local form);
  • systems and organs that are most actively involved in the development of pathology;
  • functional state of the autonomic nervous system;
  • severity (moderate, moderate, severe);
  • the nature of the development of the disease (periodic, persistent, paroxysmal).

Symptoms of children's eczema

Vegeto-vascular dystonia is characterized by numerous, often bright subjective manifestations, which do not correspond to the weaker objective signs of this organ pathology. The clinical picture of vegetative-vascular dystonia largely depends on the direction of vegetative disorders.

  • Vagotonia

The following hypochondriac complaints are determined in children with this pathology:

  • fatigue;
  • decreased ability to work;
  • memory problems;
  • sleep disorder (difficulty falling asleep, drowsiness);
  • lethargy;
  • indecision, shyness;
  • depressive state.

A decrease in appetite can be determined in combination with excessive body weight, poor tolerance, poor tolerance to stuffy rooms, a feeling of cold or lack of air, periodic deep breathing, a sense of "coma" in the throat. Also noted are vestibular disorders: dizziness, pain in the legs (usually at night) or in the abdomen, nausea, unreasonable marbling of the skin, acrocyanosis, increased skin fatness, propensity to retain fluid, turning into edema under the eyes, frequent urination, excessive salivation, spastic constipation , allergies.

Cardiovascular disorders are manifested by pain in the heart, bradyarrhythmia, a tendency to lower blood pressure, an increase in heart size, a decrease in the tone of the heart muscle. Electrocardiography determines sinus bradycardia (bradyarrhythmia).

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  • Sympaticotonia

For children with sympathicotonia is characterized by:

  • mood swings;
  • hypersensitivity to pain;
  • quick distraction from classes;
  • various neurotic states.

With sympathicotonia often complain of hot flashes. Also often there is an asthenic type of physique with increased appetite, pale and dry skin, strong white dermographism, cold feet and hands, numbness and paresthesia in the mornings, causeless fever, poor heat transferability, polyuria. There are no breathing disorders, vestibular disorders are rare.

Cardiovascular disorders are manifested in combination with tachycardia, high blood pressure at normal heart size and its loud tones. The ECG often shows sinus tachycardia.

Video: Symptoms of an AVR in a child

Concomitant pathology

For a child, pathology is much more dangerous, which can develop against a background of autonomic dysfunction:

  • Arrhythmia
  • Graves disease
  • Bronchial asthma
  • Isenko-Cushing syndrome
  • Mental disorders
  • Defect or change in the functioning of the heart muscle
  • Infectious and inflammatory defeat of the heart

Pathology can accompany a large number of syndromes (about thirty). When senostopathy pain is determined at different points in the body ("wandering pain"), its intensity and location can vary.

The causes of VVD in children and at risk

From external stimuli, the following can serve as the causes:

  • stressful situations in the family;
  • inclusion in the diet of new products;
  • mental overstrain due to the large amount of information coming with the curriculum at school;
  • frequent renewal of household goods;
  • poor adaptation to the accelerating pace of life.

In addition, doctors indicate a genetic predisposition, but this factor only increases the chances of developing the disease and never acts as the main reason for the emergence of VVD in children.

The risk group is children who are the result of problem births, premature babies, and those whose mothers suffered from infectious diseases during pregnancy. Possible damage to the central nervous system, abnormalities in development during pregnancy and early childhood, not only form various psychological problems, but also VVD

One of the most common causes of psychological trauma is the severe psychological situation in the family. The risk of developing the disease increases tenfold in families where there is one parent, parents abuse alcohol / drugs, are isolated from children or are marked with hyperopecia.

Allergic reactions, poor climate or weather conditions, unfavorable ecological situation in the region also increase the risk, especially against the background of psychoemotional stress, poor diet or hormonal disorders.

Diagnosis and identification of the causes of the disease is complicated by the fact that children are very subjective to the disease, and their complaints are sometimes far from the actual development of pathology. For example, when a child has a headache, he can simultaneously complain of abdominal pain and vice versa.

Diagnosis of VVD in children

When determining the child's above symptoms of vegetative-vascular dystonia, it is recommended to contact the clinic, where the following doctors will check it:

  • pediatrician;
  • cardiologist;
  • ophthalmologist;
  • neurologist;
  • ENT;
  • endocrinologist;
  • gynecologist (girls);
  • urologist (boys).

Doctors diagnose VVD after when the assumption about the defeat of organs of a different nature was not confirmed.Assigned a set of instrumental studies: electrocardiography, dopplerography, rheovasography, rheoencephalography.These procedures help to localize the damage to the autonomous system.

Treatment of children's eczema in children

Since the child is very sensitive to various stresses, it must be protected from all sorts of experiences. The family should be ruled by peace, mutual respect and love, while in every way it is necessary to refrain from any emotional impact.Sometimes even positive, but extremely strong, emotions are harmful.

Children with VVD need to plan weekdays and weekends, to balance physical activity with rest. It is extremely important to maintain a positive mood, prefer non-pharmacological methods of treatment, but in extreme cases do not give up traditional methods of influence.

Be sure to pay attention to the dosage prescribed by the doctor - do not give a full dose, because the desired effect is achieved gradually.

Children suffering from VVD should be screened regularly, at least once every six months, especially during the off-season.

Non-pharmacological therapeutic effect

Excessive use of sedatives can lead to unnecessary health problems in the child. Therefore, to begin treatment of VVD in children is always better with non-drug methods of exposure. In fact, this therapy is considered the main one.

Most often the following recommendations are given:

  • regular stay in the fresh air;
  • reduction of workload (lessons are organized with breaks);
  • healthy high-grade diet;
  • reducing the time spent by the child on the computer and other electronic devices associated with information flows (cell phone, television);
  • drinking clean water;
  • sleep not less than 9 hours;
  • music lessons;
  • therapeutic massage and electrophoresis;
  • acupuncture;
  • psychotherapy;
  • water therapy;
  • physiotherapy.

It is also recommended to use phytotherapy - lemon balm (neurotic form of the disease) and chamomile (dyspepsia).Effective are physiotherapeutic electrophoresis with bromine (used in the collar area) and electrosleep.

Other herbs that can help in the treatment of VVD in children:

  • Siberian ginseng;
  • aralia;
  • mother and stepmother;
  • ginseng;
  • valerian;
  • hawthorn.

A good help in the treatment of VVD in children is vitamin complexes.

Among useful sports:

  • tennis;
  • swimming;
  • skates;
  • skiing;
  • outdoor games.

Medication

Medicines prescribed by a doctor are not always taken from a group of non-pharmacological agents. If a child is able to lead a full life, doctors most often prescribe a balanced set of medicines.

Drug therapy for children's VVD may include the following drugs:

  • stimulators of blood circulation;
  • neuroprotectors;
  • antioxidants;
  • blockers;
  • antidepressants;
  • tranquilizers.

All medications are prescribed by a doctor individually. There is no "universal" set of medicines. Self-medication should be avoided, as this can lead to irreparable consequences for the child's health.

Antidepressants and tranquilizers are prescribed only in extreme cases, most often the emphasis is on sedatives.

Prevention of  VVD in children

Preventive measures include not only the correct regime of the day and the normalization of the psychological climate in the family. Doctors recommend to balance the daily diet of the patient. In particular, you need more to use beans, berries, cereals, fruits and vegetables, vegetable oils, nuts and dried fruits.

Reduce the use of the following products:

  • table salt;
  • meat and fish fatty varieties;
  • soda;
  • sweets;
  • tea and coffee (if there is a tendency to hypertension).

Comprehensive development of the child prevents the progression of the disease. We need to focus on good nutrition and restorative measures. Sometimes it is worth paying attention to visiting a family psychologist. The complex of proposed measures will eliminate the recurrence and progression of seizures and in the long term completely normalize the child's health.

Video: Prevention of VVD in children

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