Author Ольга Кияница
Spider-shaped tachycardia is more commonly known as bi-directional spindle-shaped ventricular tachycardia (HDL). May arise as a result of hereditary predisposition or be characterized as acquired illness.
Spider-like tachycardia is considered a rare disease, which is mainly determined in women aged about 20 years.
The diagnosis of the pathology is standard, with some features of the spin-like tachycardia. It is difficult to answer this state by its development at once, because first of all the patient needs to be thoroughly examined.
Video Ventricular tachycardia. Symptoms, Symptoms and Treatment Methods
Description of spindle-shaped tachycardia
The mechanisms of the formation of the FVLC are different and depend on the presence or absence of lengthening the QT interval. Patients with QT prolongation syndrome (QT QS) were more carefully examined, and a defect of repolarization was detected. The appearance of such a disorder is associated with a functional disorder of cardiac membranes (cardiomyocytes). In turn, this disorder is caused by the phenotypic expression of the genes that encode the presented cardiomyocytes.
There are various factors contributing to the development of the above violations. This may be genetically induced dysfunction of the ion channels, increased trigger activity, heterogeneity in the manifestation of the functions of repolarization and conductivity, which may be temporary and regional.
Symptoms of spindle-like tachycardia
There are two variants of the course of the FVLH: acute and chronic. For an acute flow characterized by the appearance of dizziness, fainting conditions, cardiac arrest. Chronic spiroto-like tachycardia may be asymptomatic or expressed in insignificantly common signs of tachycardia: palpitations, pulse, pulsed carotid arteries.
Causes of spindle-shaped tachycardia
In the development of HDL, the influence of the autonomic nervous system and the level of sex hormones is noted. For example, women are more likely to have congenital or acquired QT prolonged QT syndrome than men. Also, in female patients, the incidence of cardiac contractions in a calm condition and the duration of QT interval is higher than that of male patients.
The syndrome of sudden death often develops against this disease, and in women, this happens more often. But it is noted that the predictive value of men is more complicated than that of women. Why exactly this is happening today to the end is not clear.
A connection between spindle-shaped tachycardia and multiple dysplasia of the connective tissue of the heart is noted.This is due to genetic disorders that occur simultaneously in the various genes responsible for the various data relating to the connective tissue and the membrane currents of the ions.
Reasonable causes of spindle-shaped tachycardia with normal QT interval:
- professional sports (sports heart);
- mitral valve prolapse;
- reception of antiarrhythmic drugs of the first class.
It is worth noting that the development of the congenital form of QI QI often provokes physical stress and emotional experiences. Acute swirling tachycardia can be associated with craniocerebral trauma, some medications, myocarditis.Chronic flow is often observed in cardiomyopathies, postinfarction cardiosclerosis.
Types / photos of spindle tachycardia
There are several variations of the FVHZT which are related to QT interval and heredity.
According to the mechanism of development, spindle-like tachycardia are divided into:
- FFT on the background of an extended QT interval on an ECG;
- FFT with normal QT interval.
According to the genetic predisposition, the following QI-QIs are distinguished, which influence the development of spindle-like tachycardia:
To date, the most studied is the congenital QI of QI, which, according to molecular genetic findings, is divided into 7 types. The QT acquired QI is more common than the congenital and clinical significance of this pathology is more important.
Major differences in LVEF without elongation of QT interval from tachycardia with QT interval lengthening:
- a higher level of anti-arrhythmic therapy with first-class drugs is noted;
- in case of spindle-shaped therapy, against the background of antiarrhythmic drugs of the first class, the cordaron is effective;
- In its development, this type of spindle-shaped tachycardia is more benign.
Diagnosis of spindle tachycardia
Diagnosis of the disease is rather complicated, therefore, a diverse study is required. First and foremost, an electrocardiogram is prescribed, which shows the following symptoms:
- irregular sinus rhythm;
- ventricular extrasystoles (rare, early);
- deviation of the electric axis of the heart;
- increase in heart rate 160-240 beats / min.
In addition, an analysis of the interval QT, by which determines its increase or normal state. Ultrasound of the heart, chest x-ray, Holter monitoring, general laboratory tests are also required.
Treatment and prevention of spindle-shaped tachycardia
The method of compression of the attack of acquired spindle tachycardia is as follows:
- injected bolus magnesium sulfate;
- in the absence of the result, it is administered repeatedly in 10-15 minutes after re-administration;
- the inadequacy of magnesia is an indication for the use of electropulse therapy.
The antiarrhythmic drugs iA and iii should not be administered because they lengthen the QT interval.
Congenital spiroetectic tachycardia is dangerous in that when it occurs, the mortality rate is up to 70%. The suppression of this type of rupture is based on the administration of propranolol. After normalization of the heartbeat, the prevention of LVHD is carried out, for which the patient should avoid physical over-voltage, take beta-blockers without doses, do not use drugs that lengthen the QT interval
The prevention of acquired spindle-like tachycardia is to prevent recurrent attacks. To do this, magnesia is administered one to two days, after which the cause of the rhythm disturbance should be eliminated. If cardioverter defibrillator is not possible to perform such a task.