Vegeto-vascular dystonia in adolescents
Author Ольга Кияница
The main reason for the development of the VSD is a disruption in the functioning of the central part of the autonomic nervous system that regulates the work of all organs and many processes in the body. That is why the signs of this ailment can be many.
Why does vegeto-vascular dystonia develop? Specialists identify the following causes and predisposing factors for the development of this symptom complex:
- chronic stress and fatigue - under such circumstances the body constantly works "on a redivision" of its capabilities and in the functioning of the autonomic nervous system failures occur;
- constitutional features - a number of people have a vegetative nervous system that is extremely sensitive to stress factors, such a feature is observed in them since birth, and even minor disturbances can provoke serious malfunctions in the work of internal organs and systems;
- presence in the anamnesis of chronic somatic ailments (for example, stomach ulcers, chronic tonsillitis, ischemic heart disease, etc.) or transferred infections - constant receipt of signals in the CNS of the present problem causes malfunctioning of the autonomic nervous system;
- lifestyle - hypodynamia, work in the office with a PC, physical overstrain, chronic lack of sleep, night shift work, smoking, alcohol abuse, frequent coffee consumption and other negative factors affect the balanced functioning of the autonomic nervous system;
- individual features of the psyche and personality - increased suspiciousness, a tendency to emotional lability, anxiety;
- hormonal imbalance - pubertal period, pregnancy, menopause and some ailments cause changes in the hormonal status, affecting both the state of the emotional background and the state of health.
Many experts are of the opinion that it is often women who develop VSD, since their psyche is especially vulnerable and susceptible to the influence of negative factors.
In addition, doctors are always committed to a comprehensive approach to diagnosing patients with manifestations of this ailment, as often the occurrence of these symptoms is provoked by another organic pathology of a particular organ.This fact means that very often the VSD is not a primary independent disease, but a consequence of another disease.
The main symptoms of pathology
On admission to the doctor, patients with UAZ present extremely diverse complaints and they have multiple symptoms.Often it is because of the variability of the symptoms before the visit to the neurologist that the patient has time to bypass several narrowly specialized specialists (for example, a cardiologist, gastroenterologist, nephrologist, etc.).
The course of the syndrome under consideration in this article can be of the following types:
- permanent - manifestations of violations are expressed almost constantly;
- paroxysmal - manifestations of the disease occur paroxysmatically and periods of exacerbations and remissions are clearly delineated;
- latent - manifestations of violations are detected only after the diagnosis.
Video: Vegeto sucks dystonia
The symptoms of VSD are extremely variable and vary in their degree of severity, since this department of the nervous system regulates the work of almost all systems and organs:
- from the side of the central nervous system - dizziness and multifaceted headaches, noise in the head or ears, fainting, sensation of the presence of a "helmet" on the head, movement instability, deterioration in sleep quality, sensitivity to weather changes, visual disturbances and flies before the eyes;
- heart and blood vessels - periodic or persistent cardialgia of the aching, stinging or pricking nature, the inability to breathe because of the pain in the heart, the "fading" or "stopping" of the heart, the rapid or rare pulse (more than 90 or less than 60 beats per minute) blood pressure, redness or pallor of the skin, chilliness or sensation of heat, coldness of hands and feet, cyanosis of the skin, manifestations of Raynaud's syndrome;
- respiratory system - sensations of lack of air, frequent presence of lumps in the throat, difficulty breathing, shortness of breath (sometimes to suffocation), the need to take a deeper breath (the patient seems to be inhaling inadequately), increased abnormalities from breathing during stressful situations (quarrels , examinations, interviews, public appearances, etc.);
- psyche and emotions - decrease in tolerance to various loads, lethargy, drowsiness, memory and attention impairment, anxiety, tearfulness or apathy, various phobias (fear of enclosed space, diseases, etc.);
- the digestive organs - spasms and pains of the abdomen of different localization, nausea (sometimes vomiting), constipation, or stiffening of the bowel due to increased intestinal peristalsis, flatulence, belching of the air;
- muscular and motor reactions - inner trembling, trembling of hands or feet, chills, flinches, muscle cramps;
- thermoregulation and sweating - nothing unreasonable decrease or increase in temperature (35, 5 - 36 ° C or 37 - 37, 5 ° C), dry skin or excessive sweating;
- Sensitivity - sensations of numbness, crawling crawling, tingling (manifestations are especially pronounced on the background of stress);
- urogenital system - frequent urination, disturbances of the monthly cycle, weakening of the libido, absence of orgasms, erectile dysfunction and potency.
Under the influence of various adverse factors, a patient with a vegeto-vascular dystonia may suddenly develop a crisis.Depending on the predominance of signs of violations on the part of the functions of a department of the autonomic nervous system, specialists divide crises into such types:
- Vagoinsular. Such a crisis occurs with a sharp activation of the parasympathetic department. It manifests itself as a headache, dizziness, heart rate slowing down to 45 beats per minute, hypotension up to 80/50 mm Hg. , narrowing of the pupils, nausea, vomiting, increased salivation, rumbling in the abdomen and increased gas production, liquid stool and frequent urges for defecation, plentiful sweat and a drop in temperature. After a crisis, the patient feels "broken".
- Sympathoadrenal. This type of crisis is caused by the activation of the sympathetic department and the release of a large volume of norepinephrine into the blood. The attack manifests itself by increasing the pressure to 150 - 180/90 - 110 mm Hg. (up to 140 strokes), chills and fever to 38 - 38, 5 ° C, pallor, chillness of hands and feet, anxiety (sometimes fear of death), motor anxiety and emotional arousal. After the crisis is over, a large amount of urine is released from the patient.
Crises in VSD do not always follow the above described options and can combine manifestations of both sympathoadrenal and vagoinsular attacks. According to observations of specialists, it is the combination of signs of both types that occurs in clinical practice more often than one particular type.
During crises, the patient may experience loss of self-control, expressed anxiety and fear of death. Such severe manifestations indicate the development of the so-called panic attack.
The main causes of VSD in adolescents
In adolescence, the following factors and causes may become the cause of the development of the VSD:
- hormonal restructuring;
- rapid growth of organs and the musculoskeletal system, to which the blood supply system does not have time to adapt;
- previously transmitted infections and diseases;
- congenital malformations;
- hereditary predisposition (IRR in parents);
- bad habits;
- insufficient physical activity;
- stress (conflicts with parents or peers, phobias or complexes, exams, admission to university, etc.).
Experts note that very often the development of vegetative vascular dystonia is provoked not by one but by two or more factors.
Symptoms of AVI in adolescents
As in adults, and in adolescents, the manifestations of vegetative dystonia can be extremely diverse. More often at this age category the following symptoms are revealed:
- blood pressure jumps;
- dizziness and darkening in the eyes (sometimes fainting);
- tachycardia or pulse instability;
- emotional instability;
- a sense of lack of air and frequent sighs;
- chilliness of hands and feet;
- recurring headaches of a different nature;
- redness or pallor of the facial skin;
- tendency to sweating;
- increased fatigue;
- increased or worsened appetite and digestive disorders;
- sudden rise in temperature;
- frequent urge to urinate.
Specialists note that girls are often more expressed symptoms of psychoemotional nature, and in boys - painful. More often from the VSD emotional, labile or traumatized teenagers suffer, acutely experiencing even on a minor occasion.They often deteriorate mood, depression can develop, features such as tearfulness and even hysteria are characteristic.In addition to increasing sweating, these children often have increased production of sebum. Some people have poor tolerance of heat or cold, there is swelling.
With exacerbation of the VSD, teenagers may experience crises and panic attacks. Specialists note that usually for this age category is characterized by a decrease in blood pressure.
Often, vegetative-vascular dystonia in adolescents does not cause serious deviations in health status. However, in some severe cases, this ailment causes the development of persistent arterial hypertension by the age of 30 years.
Diagnosis of AVI in adolescents
Sometimes, in order to diagnose a teenager, it is not enough to have an examination with a neurologist and consultations of a cardiologist, endocrinologist, gastroenterologist, ophthalmologist and pediatrician can be recommended. Depending on the clinical case for the confirmation of the diagnosis, the patient is assigned such studies:
- ECHO EG;
- Ultrasound of the vessels of the head and neck, thyroid gland;
- blood test for hormones;
- MRI angiography of cerebral vessels, etc.
Treatment of AVI in adolescents
The tactics of treatment of VSD in adolescents is determined by the severity and nature of the symptoms. In most cases, the doctor is trying to start therapy with non-medicament means.
To all teenagers with such ailment it is recommended:
- Compliance with the regime of the day: enough rest at night and day, the correct organization of working hours, outdoor walks, restrictions in viewing TV and pastime near the computer.
- Sufficient physical activity: physical education, sports, walking, active recreation (playing with the ball, cycling, swimming, etc.).
- Properly organized food: a sufficient number of vitamins and minerals (especially potassium and magnesium), exclusion of products that activate the work of the nervous system (coffee, power engineers, spicy dishes, etc.).
- Rejection of bad habits.
- Minimizing stress: a favorable psychological climate in the family, school, company, etc.
The complex of the above-described measures can be supplemented by the following physiotherapeutic procedures that have a beneficial effect on the nervous system:
- cold and hot shower;
- massage: head, collar area, general;
- phytotherapy (decoction of motherwort, mint, lemon balm, dogrose, and in hypotension: preparations of aralia, magnolia vine and ginseng);
- Balneotherapy: baths with sea salt, pine needles, pearl baths;
Many experts recommend that adolescents promote self-realization and the elimination of complexes of art therapy or hobbies.
If the whole complex of the above-described conservative and non-drug measures does not have the desired effect, then the specialist can prescribe the following medications that help to eliminate the symptoms of bronchial asthma:
- sedatives: valerian, glutamic acid, glycine, etc .;
- Supplements and vitamin-mineral preparations for strengthening the nervous system and blood vessels;
- drugs to stabilize blood pressure;
- antidepressants (in severe cases).
Manifestations of vegetative-vascular dystonia should not always remain without due attention from the parents of the adolescent. If the syndrome is suspected, the child must undergo a comprehensive examination that will differentiate this ailment from other diseases. After that, the doctor will be able to draw up a treatment plan, which can be both non-medicated, and imply the taking of certain drugs. Self-administration of medicines in such cases is unacceptable, since manifestations of the VSD may conceal the organic pathology of organs (for example, the heart).