Sinus tachycardia

Sinus tachycardia is characterized by an accelerated heartbeat and occurs in virtually all age categories. It is often determined by scheduled reviews of adolescents and even young children. What is a dangerous sinus tachycardia and what does modern medicine offer for the treatment of the disease?

Sinus tachycardia is characterized by a rapid heartbeat and occurs in virtually all age categories. It is often determined during routine examinations in adolescents and even in small children. What is the danger of sinus tachycardia and what does modern medicine offer for the treatment of the disease?

When excitement, physical exertion, emotional stresses, frequent heartbeats are experienced. Some have noted a heartbeat after a tight dinner or strong coffee. All of these factors are really capable of causing sinus tachycardia, which in a normal state passes through time. This is due to the fact that a healthy heart cope with the stress experienced, while blood circulation in other organs and systems is not disturbed.

Tachycardia is a healthy reaction of the body caused by one or another factor. It is necessary to compensate for the increased work of organs and systems that require constant blood supply.

In some cases, tachycardia is a pathological condition that causes certain clinical manifestations. It can be both an independent disease, and connected with other organs - the brain, pancreatic or thyroid gland, lungs, intestines. In such cases, a properly established diagnosis and timely prescribed treatment will avoid complications that are directly related to tachycardia.

Description of sinus tachycardia

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It is a form of arrhythmia with supraventricular localization (in the atria). The main peculiarity of manifestation is accelerated sinus rhythm, in which its regularity and balance of work of ventricles and atria are preserved. The mean heart rate for sinus tachycardia is 115 beats per minute, although sometimes it reaches 220 beats per minute.

In adults tachycardia is considered a rapid heartbeat of 100 beats per minute, in children - from 120 beats per minute.

Symptoms of sinus tachycardia

Subjective sensations may not be noted if the condition of the heart, valves and vessels is close to normal. Also, signs such as slight discomfort in the chest, uncomplicated pain in the heart, non-fatigues, weaknesses that do not affect performance are not cause for concern.

It is worth considering whether sinus tachycardia is dangerous if the following symptoms occur:

  • heartbeat is defined as pronounced and frequent;
  • In a calm condition, shortness of breath is felt and there is a feeling of lack of air;
  • weakness does not allow to work normally;
  • possible loss of consciousness;
  • There was irritability, anxiety, anxiety and fear;
  • heart pain appears in a calm condition and does not pass for a long time.

In addition to subjective symptoms for a long-term attack of the sinus tachycardia, objective manifestations are characterized - pallor of the skin, mild excitability. Urine formation is scant and arterial pressure is lowered.

Causes of sinus tachycardia

There are two types of tachycardia - physiological and pathological. The first form most often occurs due to external factors that can be represented by physical work, psychoemotional overvoltages, the use of tonic substances (caffeine, alcohol, energy). Upon cessation of the influence of factors causing tachycardia, normalization of the general condition is noted.

Pathological sinus tachycardia has a clinical significance, since the symptoms of the disease do not pass in a calm condition. A person can not fully rest and work, therefore, medical intervention is required. Several groups of causes, which are conditionally divided into extracardial and cardiac, play an important role here. The first group includes the following exposure factors:

  • Neurogenic disorders, contributing to the development of so-called vagal arrhythmia, vegetative vascular and intercostal tachycardia.
  • Endocrine disorders, which due to hormonal imbalance lead to accelerated heart work. Especially often this occurs when thyrotoxicosis, adrenal tumors. Diabetes mellitus can also cause pancreatic arrhythmias.
  • Other extracardiac causes include: injuries with severe blood loss, prolonged febrile conditions, hypoxia, anemia of various origins, and the administration of medications (caffeine, sympathomimetics).

Cardiac causes are associated with a disturbance of the cardiovascular system. Among them, the main ones are:

  • Cardiomyopathy.
  • Inflammatory diseases of the myocardium.
  • Heart failure, often chronic.
  • All forms of coronary heart disease.
  • Heart defects (acquired and congenital).

Types of sinus tachycardia

Children in normal condition have an accelerated heartbeat. The occurrence of sinus tachycardia in childhood may be associated with fever, acute infectious processes, and disorders of the nervous system. The state of the pulse basically depends on the age of the child, so you need to check with the table of heart rate, calculated by age:

Table: Limits of normal values of sinus tachycardia

Age Limits of normal values (ud / min)
newborns (up to 1 month of life) 110-170
from 1 month to 1 year 100-160
from 1 year to 2 years 95-155
2-4 years old 90-140
4-6 years 85-125
6-8 years old 78-118
8-10 years old 70-110
10-12 years old 60-100
12-15 years old 55-95
15-50 years 60-80
50-60 years old 65-85
60-80 years old 70-90

Sinus Tachycardia ECG

Teenagers most often have a functional tachycardia, which develops on the background of emotional lability and is characterized by neurogenic disorders. Manifestations of increased fatigue, weakness, irritability, there are signs of an imbalance of the vegetative-vascular system - sweating, dizziness, a feeling of trembling, frequent urination.

Pregnant women are often observed attacks of heartbeat, which occurs even in those who previously did not feel like this. This is due to an increase in the volume of blood in the body of the woman, an increase in the load on the heart muscle, a change in the hormonal state in the body. Also, the increasing uterus promotes an increase in pressure in the abdominal cavity, which also contributes to the development of heart attacks. In order to avoid complications in the form of gestosis, women's consultations closely monitor the progress of pregnancy.

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The 9 Causes of Sinus Tachycardia

In the elderly, due to the weakening of many processes in the body, the risk of sinus angina increases. As a rule, at this age already there are many diseases that more or less provoke its development.

Complications and consequences of the pathological form of sinus tachycardia

It may be complicated by congestive phenomena in the circulatory system, expressed in acute and chronic heart failure.If the tachycardia develops against other heart diseases, their more complicated flow is observed. For example, angina becomes heavier, repeated myocardial infarction is possible. Violation of the rhythm involves other internal organs in the pathological process. May develop pulmonary edema or blood supply to the brain.

Diagnosis of sinus tachycardia

The examination of the patient begins with his questioning, objective examination. Subsequently, laboratory and instrumental studies are prescribed - electrocardiography, echocardiography, ultrasound heart, blood biochemistry, urine analysis, hormonal parameters are determined.
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Electrocardiography is the main method of diagnosis of sinus tachycardia, available at any level of patient care. The key ECG features are:

  • the correct sinus rhythm is preserved;
  • Heart rate is more than 90 per minute;
  • the pin P is defined as positive in all major leads;
  • Between the teeth P there is a shorter distance (interval);
  • the tooth T may be increased or reduced.

Prevention of pathological sinus tachycardia

It is concluded in the organization of a healthy lifestyle and proper nutrition . Mainly stands:

  • Do not abuse and do not smoke;
  • To do sports and spend as much as possible every day;
  • I take food without hurry and in small portions;
  • The dream should be full and encouraging;
  • Maintain a positive mood in and around others;
  • Do not overwork and alternate load and rest.

Treatment of pathological sinus tachycardia

It is composed on the basis of collected complaints, objective examination, instrumental and laboratory research. The evaluation of the cardiovascular system and other organs is being evaluated.

Physiological sinus tachycardia does not require specific treatment. If a person experiences a periodic heartbeat that does not cause discomfort and goes on his own, then it is enough to carry out the main prophylaxis of the disease.
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The pathological form is primarily considered in the context of the underlying disease. To begin with, medication is prescribed. If this is an endocrine disorder, then the treatment of sinus tachycardia is performed by the treating endocrinologist. The treatment of heartbeat in combination with cardiovascular diseases is carried out by the cardiologist taking into account the admissible drugs. Neurogenic disorders causing heartburn should be corrected by a neurologist.

There is a non-drug treatment for sinus tachycardia. First of all, this is physiotherapy. Water treatments in the form of a pool and relaxing baths, and massage can also be appointed. With neurogenic arrhythmias, the counseling of the therapist helps, since it is important for patients to cope with their fears and experiences.

Preparations

Basically it is antiarrhythmic medication. A number of them improve cardiac innervation (magnesium sulfate, potassium supplements, membrane stabilizers, calcium ion antagonists), others directly affect the cardiac muscle (sympathomimetics, β-adrenoblockers and -adrenomimetics). There are also combined medications, such as cardiac glycosides, which affect the innervation of the heart and myocardium at the same time.

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