Author Ольга Кияница
Rhythmic tachycardia is a disturbance in rhythm, in which an increase in the frequency of heart rate is observed, with the preservation of sinus rhythm.
The occurrence of rhythmic tachycardia is often associated with such rhythm disorders as supraventricular tachycardia and ventricular tachycardia.
Diagnosis of the pathology is carried out with the participation of standard electrocardiography, supplemented, if necessary, with an ultrasound of the heart and electrophysiological examination. In order not to worry about the risk of rhythmic tachycardia, it is time to determine the pathology and treat it.
Description of rhythmic tachycardia
Violation of the rhythm of the type of tachycardia develops on the background of pulse conduction disorder or the formation of ectopic foci. In the first case, the main mechanism of development of tachycardia is re-enter, when the impulse moves along a closed contour and thus provokes a rapid heartbeat. Pathogical foci are often associated with organic damage to the heart muscle that occurs in various heart conditions.
Rhythmic tachycardia is most often combined with atrioventricular reciprocal tachycardia, in particular with such forms as nodular and orthodromic.
Long-running tachycardia is able to drain the reserves of cardiomyocytes. The heart muscle in the chronic heartbeat begins to poorly blood supply, which in consequence can lead to heart failure.
Symptoms of rhythmic tachycardia
Pathology manifests itself as the majority of forms of arrhythmia by type of tachycardia. The patient during an attack experiences a palpitation, a discomfort in the region of the heart. Vegetative disorders can be manifested in the form of weakness, dizziness, sensation of heat in the body, pallor of the skin. The appearance of irritability, feeling of fear, anxiety can also indicate the onset of a tachycardia attack.
Rhythmic tachycardia is determined exclusively by the electrocardiogram, therefore it is practically impossible to accurately determine the form of tachycardia by one symptom.
Causes of rhythmic tachycardia
There are predisposing factors contributing to the development of tachycardia, including rhythmic form.
- emotional overload;
- physical activity;
- bad habits (smoking, drinking);
- incorrect use of cardiotropic drugs (cardiac glycosides);
- the presence of organic pathology of the heart;
- metabolic disorders (potassium deficiency, magnesium, impaired lung function).
Among the most complex diseases that contribute to the development of rhythmic tachycardia, hyperthyroidism, arterial hypertension, anemia, heart flaws, traumas and surgical interventions on the heart should be distinguished.
Diagnosis of rhythmic tachycardia
The examination of a patient includes a thorough collection of anamnesis of the disease. First of all, the period of the first attack occurred. Also, the frequency of attacks of tachycardia, their duration and termination is important.
Basic diagnostics is performed using electrocardiography, which shows the following symptoms:
- sinus rhythm is not disturbed, as indicated by the presence of the tooth P;
- the heart rate is determined above the age standard (in adults it is above 100 beats per minute);
- the ventricular complexes are most often narrow, although, with lesions of the ventricular myocardium, their expansion may be observed.
A standard ECG study may not be sufficient to accurately determine the location of an ectopic focus or form of tachyarrhythmia. An electrophysiological study is then used which is based on provoking a rhythm disturbance attack.Determining the electrophysiological characteristics of the tachycardia pathways allows for more effective treatment of rhythmic tachycardia.
Treatment and prevention of rhythmic tachycardia
First of all, a vagal test is used to stop the attack. In the event of inefficiency, the following medications are used:
- adenosine in a dose of 6-12 mg;
- ATP in a dose of 10-20 mg.
Such preparations are especially used in supraventricular rhythmic tachycardia. To prevent attacks, antiarrhythmic drugs can be selected and necessarily on an individual basis.