What causes arrhythmia?

Author Ольга Кияница


Violation of the rhythm can significantly reduce the quality of human life. Especially often this happens when there is unconsciousness in the question as to why an arrhythmia arises. In such cases, the patient hurts himself because of ignoring the risk factors for the development of the disease.

Arrhythmia refers to violations of the conduction system of the heart, and is expressed in the form of frequent, slowing or disturbing rhythm of the cardiac activity. Often a rhythm disturbance is regarded as a physiological condition or as a variant of the norm, but this happens only in the absence of characteristic signs in a calm state. Otherwise, the disease becomes clinically important and must be amenable to appropriate therapy.

To conduct effective therapy, and also to correctly distinguish the physiological disorder of the rhythm from the pathological, you need to know what causes the arrhythmia of the heart.

Correctly established cause of pathology helps to restore normal heart activity, as well as to prevent possible repetition of attacks. To do this, use special diagnostic methods (electrocardiography, ultrasound of the heart, electrophysiological research), before which an objective examination of the patient is carried out.
Video How the heart works. Cardiac arrhythmia: symptoms, causes and treatment

Causes of arrhythmia

There are five main groups of causes, which most often become an answer to the question, why there is an arrhythmia of the heart.

  1. The group of cardiac diseases is the largest and most often determined among patients with moderate and severe arrhythmia. Includes all pathologies associated with impaired function and heart structure. More often than others the reason of disturbance of a rhythm becomes myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, developmental defects of the valve apparatus, cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, acute and chronic heart failure.
  2. Extracardiac diseases are all those pathologies that exert a reflex influence on the main driver of rhythm, as a result of which cardiac activity increases or slows down. The key influence is exerted by the vegetative nervous system, and there are also many cases of arrhythmia on the background of dysfunction of the thyroid gland, adrenal glands and other endocrine organs. Affect the activity of the heart disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, so often gastritis, duodenitis, pancreatitis accompanied by arrhythmias.
  3. Medicinal effect - takes place in those cases when the dosage of the drug is incorrectly chosen, or the patient has exceeded the doses indicated by the doctor. Most often, arrhythmias appear against the background of cardiac glycosides, sympathomimetics, diuretics and antiarrhythmic drugs.
  4. Electrolyte disturbances - often appear during long-term treatment with the same drugs, which, on the contrary, delay or delay some of the microelements. Therefore, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypercalcemia, hyperkalemia and other disorders develop.
  5. Toxic effects - smoking, drinking alcoholic beverages, and narcotic substances have an extremely negative impact on the heart.

Still there is a variant of an idiopathic arrhythmia, which develops without a cause. In such cases, it is not possible to establish the etiologic factor even after long and careful studies of the patient.

Risk factors for arrhythmia of the heart

There are several predisposing factors, which most often lead to the development of rhythm disturbances.

  • Elevated blood pressure - depending on the severity of the clinic, can affect hemodynamics and the activity of the heart in different ways. Minor hypertension is often asymptomatic, but a pronounced pathology is often the answer to the question of why atrial fibrillation arises. With a rare increase in pressure, all parts of the heart begin to work hard, which in some cases causes the atrium to contract more often and irregularly than in the ventricles.
  • Heredity - many cardiovascular diseases are transmitted from parents to children. Especially often, congenital malformations of the valvular apparatus (stenosis, insufficiency) are diagnosed. There are also forms of rhythm disturbances that are genetically determined (QT prolonged interval syndrome, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome).
  • Increased glucose level - similar occurs in diabetes mellitus, especially in the late stages of the disease. A sharp fluctuation of glucose in the blood contributes to the rhythm disturbance, therefore it is extremely important to take timely measures to treat such an endocrine pathology.
  • The use of psychostimulants - the uncontrolled use of stimulants of the psychic sphere leads to an imbalance of the central nervous system, which in turn starts to regulate the operation of the heart, which leads to arrhythmia.
  • Hypodinamy - the heart muscle needs regular intake of oxygen, which best saturates the cells with moderate exercise. If a person spends more time in a sitting position, then on the contrary, heart problems begin to arise, including arrhythmias.
  • Increased body weight - on the background of hypodynamia, there is often another problem, excess body weight. If you do not do it in time, then the load on the heart increases, it becomes more difficult to do the usual work. The change in hemodynamics leads to an aggravation of the general condition, as a result of which, in addition to arrhythmia, more complex pathologies can develop (heart failure, myocardial infarction).
  • Stress is one of the main risk factors for today, because more often because of mental overstrain patients get to the reception with complaints about heart disruptions and type questions from which atrial fibrillation arises. If even against the background of taking arrhythmics continue to be nervous and under psychological influence, then the drugs will help by 50% or less. Therefore, in addition to drug treatment it is necessary to provide a patient with a calm environment.

It must be remembered that arrhythmia can be complicated by life-threatening conditions, so do not hesitate to visit a doctor when the first symptoms of the disease appear.

Arrhythmias after surgery RFA

The method of radiofrequency ablation is now increasingly used to eliminate various arrhythmias, in the pathogenesis of which lies the pathological circulation of the pulse. First of all, it is atrial fibrillation and various reciprocal tachycardias. Often, surgery is successful, but in 1% of cases complications may occur: bleeding, thrombosis, arrhythmias, narrowing of the lumen of the pulmonary vessels.

The risk of a rhythm disturbance after RFA increases in the following cases:

  • age of the patient is 75 years or more;
  • Blood coagulability is not so good as to prevent the development of bleeding;
  • the patient has serious concomitant diseases (diabetes mellitus, hard to treat hypertension).

Whatever good predictions are given to conduct radiofrequency ablation, after the operation it is important to carefully follow all medical recommendations. Particular attention is paid to dietary intake, moderate physical activity, rejection of bad habits and preventive reception of antiarrhythmic drugs.

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