What are the methods of heart exam?
Author Ольга Кияница
The heart test is conducted with the help of various instrumental techniques and analyzes that help to explore different structures of the heart. Diagnosis is conducted with the obligatory participation of the doctor and other nursing staff, after which the obtained results are analyzed by the attending physician-cardiologist.
Most heartbeat methods are considered invasive, so they need to be prepared in a special way. Other methods are based on non-invasive principles of conduct. The choice of the method most suitable for one or another patient is taken by the attending physician, and the earlier it is possible to establish the cause of the illness, the more effective the treatment is carried out.
Video Heart Diagnosis. Cardiology Diagnostics. Survey of cardiovascular system in Kiev, Odessa
Where does the patient's examination begin?
First of all, the patient is counseled by a cardiologist, who also conducts a physical examination. In the beginning, complaints are collected, which are entered into the card of the disease, and after the proper inspection is carried out:
- Objective examination - the doctor examines the skin, mucous membranes, which allows you to determine anemia, heart failure, some heart defects at the first stage.
- Percussion - accessible to each physician a way of determining the limits of the heart, which can vary with various diseases.
- Auscultation - a phonendoscope, the doctor listens to heart tones, which normally should be rhythmic and well audible. In cases of disturbances, the muffler of tones may be noted, their bifurcation, sometimes additional tones appear.
In rare cases, the doctor does not prescribe additional research methods after the initial examination.Electrocardiography is most often prescribed and more precise diagnostic methods are followed, which help to clarify the cause of the pathology.
Modern methods of examination of the heart
The diagnostic methods that are being conducted today are often invasive, but despite this, they are successfully implemented, helping to identify the most complex cardiovascular pathologies. The emergence of modern survey methods is directly related to the development of electrophysics, which is complemented each year by other progressive achievements of science.
Progressive Heart Inspection Methods:
- Magnetic resonance imaging.
- Radionuclide methods of investigation.
- X-ray examination of the heart
- Electrophysiological study.
Magnetic resonance imaging
Relates to non-invasive diagnostic methods and is often used to determine cardiovascular disease. The effect of MRI is based on the use of a powerful magnetic field, frequency radio pulses and technologies for processing feedback signals.As a result, on the resulting images, the structure of the heart is shown in detail in a very thin transverse section. All surrounding tissues, vessels and other organs are also available for evaluation.
MRI of the heart helps to determine:
- thickness of the myocardium, size of the ventricles, structure of other anatomical elements;
- areas of damage that may arise from ischemia, destruction, hypotrophy, infectious processes;
- Atherosclerotic plaques that can accumulate in the vessels.
Ionizing radiation is not used during MRI, but the study is contraindicated in patients with implanted pacemakers and other medical devices. When the contrast agent is administered, allergic reactions, kidney problems may be noted. Also, after contrast MRI, breastfeeding should not be continued for 24-48 hours.
MRI of the heart image - mitral insufficiency
Radionuclide methods of investigation
One of the most harmful studies, as a radioisotope is introduced into the circulatory system. In addition, the patient is irradiated, so this method is only performed in the extreme cases when other diagnostic methods proved to be ineffective.
Radionuclide examination allows to evaluate:
- myocardial perfusion;
- diastolic and systolic ejection of the heart muscle;
- regional perfusion of the lungs.
If necessary, the presented diagnostic variant allows to determine the acute myocardial infarction, for which special radioactive nuclides are used.
Common types of radionuclide research:
- Radionuclide Ventriculography - Used to assess the state of the ventricles and vessels. Quite often used in the diagnosis of left ventricular aneurysm. In 90% of cases it is possible to diagnose coronary heart disease, if necessary combined with load tests.
- The perfusion scintigraphy of the myocardium is a refining examination, often used for differential diagnosis of coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction.
Video Radionuclide methods of research, scintigraphy - what is it? Union of Pediatricians of Russia
X-ray examination of the heart
The most common form of this method is X-ray. With its help, parameters such as size and shape of the heart, pulsation and the ratio of its various divisions are determined. For diagnostics, images are made in four positions: profile, facsimile, left and right oblique position.
X-ray examination is used in the diagnosis of cardiac vices, abnormal parts of the heart muscle, tumor formations, coronary vascular pathology. In the presence of artificial valves you can evaluate their performance. If there are changes in the esophagus, effusion in the pericardial cavity on X-ray, similar changes will be noted.
X-ray studies have contraindications to conduction. In particular, X-ray can not be done in the first trimester of pregnancy, as it can be harmed to the fetus. X-rays too often are not recommended too often, as pathological changes in organs and tissues may occur. One-time study does not have a negative impact.
Video X-ray image of aortic heart shape
A widely used survey that helps with difficult-to-diagnose forms of arrhythmia. The method is also used to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment.
During the diagnosis, special catheters are used which are injected through the esophagus or vessel. An electric discharge is supplied to them, which stimulates the contraction of the heart. In parallel, the recording of the electrocardiogram inside the cavity of the heart and on the outside of the body is recorded. The results are then compared and the medical report is made.
EFI is an invasive diagnostic method, and in some cases it can not be used. Subjective sensations experienced by patients during EM are also narrowing the range of subjects. Yet this study is highly valued, since it allows you to determine with the maximum accuracy the shape of heart rhythm disturbance.
Cardiovisor at the clinic and at home
Among the cardiovascular equipment available today, the cardiovisor is gaining popularity. With its help it is quite possible to separate a healthy person from a patient on the cardiovascular system. It is also possible to monitor changes in dynamics and compare them with the results obtained before and after treatment.
The cardiovisor is intended not only for doctors, but also for patients who seek to constantly monitor their well-being, which sometimes makes it very difficult at home. The study on the device is relatively simple and the conclusion is quite understandable. If necessary, the results of the examination are sent to the treating physician by e-mail.
The cardiovisor works on the following principle:
- registration and evaluation of the electrocardiogram;
- microalteration analysis;
- use of dispersion mapping method.
According to the results of the above-mentioned developments, it is possible to obtain the most accurate reflection of the electrophysiological state of cardiomyocytes. The range of myocardial assessment using a cardiovisor is wider than the standard ECG. In particular, metabolic processes in the heart muscle, various changes in microcirculation, as well as the features of perfusion in cardiomyocytes are taken into account.
To use a cardiovisor, it's enough to connect a small device via USB to a computer or laptop. Then the electrical activity of the heart is recorded through the provided electrodes, which are put on the arms and legs. On the PC screen, three-dimensional graphic cards are displayed, which are accompanied by a conclusion. The entire process of analyzing the condition of the heart and vessels with this device takes no more than half a minute. Thus, without leaving the house or directly at the reception of the doctor you can get a fairly high-quality and complete conclusion about the work of the right and left departments of the heart.
In critical situations, when a person does not have a heart rhythm or respiration, cardiopulmonary resuscitation is performed first. With the help of standard techniques, you can help the patient avoid death, or at least support his life activity until the arrival of the medical staff.
The presence of diseases of the coronary vessels may suggest the performance of such an operation as heart bypass. With its help, the normal blood supply to the myocardium is restored, which reduces the risk of developing a heart attack. There are various indications and contraindications for this surgery.
In diagnostics of cardiovascular diseases an important role is played by timely diagnostics. It is often enough to conduct a standard ECG to make a correct diagnosis. In other cases, a diverse study of the heart is required, which allows you to establish the exact cause of the illness and conduct an effective treatment.