What are the organic heart disease?
Author Ольга Кияница
Organic heart disease is a large group of abnormalities that combines the presence of structural changes in the myocardium. Their occurrence is often associated with destruction, ischemia, fibrosis, inflammation of the heart muscle. As a result, pathological foci are formed that are not capable of performing the specified functions of the myocardium.
Today, mortality due to cardiovascular diseases is increased due to organic pathologies of the heart. At the same time, the first place in the world of mortality was coronary heart disease.
The success of the treatment of organic heart disease depends on timely diagnosis. Therefore, at a certain age, starting at about 50 years, it is extremely important to have regular examinations of doctors, including the cardiologist. If necessary, instrumental methods of diagnosis in the form of ultrasound of the heart, electrocardiography are used. In complicated cases an electrophysiological study is often used to determine the shape of the arrhythmia.
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Classification of heart disease
The heart belongs to vital organs, so any abnormalities associated with its structure or function can lead to serious disorders throughout the body. Today, a number of organic heart diseases are known, which often lead to tissue destruction and, in some cases, cause the death of the patient.
Conditional classification of organic heart disease
- Ischemic heart disease - involves sudden coronary death, angina (unstable and tension), myocardial infarction.
- Heart failures (congenital and acquired).
- Inflammatory diseases of the myocardium, endocardium and pericardium.
- Rheumatic heart disease.
Determination of a variety of pathology makes it possible to determine the cause of its development. In the future there is an opportunity to carry out effective treatment, which as a result will improve the quality of life of the patient, and in some cases will save him from death.
Ischemic heart disease
At the heart of the pathology is the circulatory disorder of the coronary vessels feeding the cardiac muscle (myocardium). Pathology develops on the background of atherosclerosis of the vascular wall, due to which the blood flow to the vessel partially or completely ceases. Coronary thrombosis may also be the cause of coronary heart disease (CHD), which also causes the development of a clinic for acute or chronic blood supply disorders.
The most dangerous are acute forms of CHD, manifested by unstable angina, myocardial infarction and acute coronary syndrome. The last disease is causing sudden death. In addition, chronic forms of CHD, which are characterized by a pronounced clinic. In particular, this includes cardiosclerosis, stable angina pectoris and asymptomatic ischemia of the myocardium.
In what cases is the development of IHD?
- In case of malnutrition, when consuming high-calorie and fatty foods in large quantities.
- If the preference is given to a sedentary lifestyle, or work is associated with a prolonged stay in a sedentary position.
- In the case of frequent use of alcoholic beverages and the presence of other harmful habits, especially smoking.
- When disorders of fat metabolism develop, often expressed in metabolic syndrome, hypothyroidism, obesity, diabetes mellitus.
- At reaching a certain age (in the elderly, the IHD develops more often), although recently, due to frequent stresses, the IHD is often found in people of working age.
- Emotional lability and the tendency to depression can also cause a coronary circulatory disorder.
A pronounced IHD clinic includes a number of characteristic symptoms: burning back pain, pain in the area of the shoulder blade or left hand. A similar attack depending on the shape of the coronary heart disease can last from a few minutes to half an hour. The appearance of pain indicates a lack of oxygen in some part of the myocardium, therefore, in the absence of treatment for ischemia, a heart attack develops, with all the aggravating consequences.
The pathogenesis of the disease is closely related to atherosclerosis, which results in three stages in the development of myocardial infarction:
- Initial destruction of the inner wall of the vessel due to the presence of an atherosclerotic plaque, which for a long time was in the vessel and affected the fragments and various active components on its inner wall.
- Formation of a blood clot in vessels affected by atherosclerosis, as a result of destruction of the endothelial layer and further attachment in places of damage to the platelets and other blood cells.
- The thrombus closes the lumen of the vessel, in addition the coronary arteries are spasmized, as a result of which the blood supply of this vessel loses the oxygen of the myocardium and causes necrosis (dying) of tissues.
In most cases, the myocardial infarction develops in a typical (anginal) form, when there is a severe pain in the region of the heart giving the left arm, lower jaw, left shoulder blade. Painful sensations last for a long time, about half an hour or more.
It is important to remember that when myocardial infarction does not help nitroglycerin, it is recommended to take such a medication before providing medical aid with the aim of a slight improvement of the patient's condition.
Myocardial infarction can develop in other, atypical, forms - asthmatic, arrhythmic, abdominal, cerebrovascular, malosymptomatic. In any case, it is necessary immediately to call an ambulance and to pass the sick doctors for further resuscitation actions.
Can be congenital and acquired. The first type of heart defects is more common in children, when the baby develops signs of a disorder of the heart and blood vessels (pallor or vice versa, cyanosis, poor sucking, frequent crying, shortness of breath, etc.).
The main forms of congenital heart disease:
- Defect of interventricular septum.
- Defect of interatrial septum.
- Irradiation of arterial duct.
- Stenosis of the pulmonary artery.
- Coarctation of the aorta.
- Aortic stenosis
In most cases, congenital malformations require defective plastic or angioplasty. Only sometimes, and then not all the vices, can be solved independently and eliminated by the achievement of a child of a certain age. If, on the contrary, the child had everything normal, and then, when physical activity began to manifest the symptoms of the disease, it is necessary to immediately contact the cardiologist, so that a decision was made on the optimal method of treatment.
Infectious factors affect the heart in the presence of chronic infection in the body (caries, pyelonephritis, chronic infectious diseases of the respiratory system). If the patient does not treat such foci of infection, or treatment is not enough to eliminate pathogens, then they spread throughout the body, settling on the walls of the vessels and penetrating further into the tissues of the organs.
Inflammatory heart disease:
- Myocarditis - the infectious process affects the cardiac muscle.
- Endocarditis - the infection is localized on the inner wall of the heart (endocardium).
- Pericarditis - the causative agent is located on the outer skin of the heart, where the infectious process develops.
In addition to inflammatory diseases, tissue of the heart may undergo a tumor process. In some cases, cardiomyopathies, often associated with genetic, autoimmune and other effects, develop.
Rheumatic heart disease
The transmitted angina, caused by beta-hemolytic streptococcus, is most often complicated by rheumatic heart disease. Most often, primary rheumatic heart disease is defined in children and young people. Much less often - in adulthood.
During the development of rheumatism, various structures of the heart may be struck: endothelium, myocardium or epicardium. In some cases, the development of an inflammatory process involves all three lungs of the heart, then speak of pancared.
Rheumatism can occur in acute, subacute, latent and recurrent forms.
In case of illness, both cardiac and non-specific symptoms may occur. The first one is the pain and feeling of pressure behind the sternum, arrhythmia, tachy or bradycardia, and dyspnea may also be observed. Non-specific manifestations include dizziness, headache, fever, inflammatory diseases of the large and middle joints.
In this way it turns out that all heart diseases, which violate the integrity of its structural elements, are organic. Their development is often associated with severe hemodynamic changes, which is why it is very important to begin treatment on a regular basis, which is mainly carried out in hospital settings.
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Rheumatic heart disease
In diagnostics of cardiovascular diseases an important role is played by timely diagnostics. It is often enough to conduct a standard ECG to make a correct diagnosis. In other cases, a diverse study of the heart is required, which allows you to establish the exact cause of the illness and conduct an effective treatment.
The heart belongs to vital organs, therefore without it it would not have been possible for a single person to exist. The structure, as well as the appearance of the heart, is rather diverse, but quite capable of logical explanations. A proper understanding of how the human heart looks like a healthy estimate of the body’s overall capacity.
During fetal development of the fetus under the influence of predisposing factors, normal formation of the cardiovascular system may be disturbed. As a result of this, congenital malformations are created that can be compatible and incompatible with life. The development of pathology is often associated with the wrong way of life of the mother during pregnancy, although in some cases, heredity plays a big role.