Author Ольга Кияница
Arrhythmias refer to those diseases that are part of the generally accepted classification of diseases, the last time revised in 2010.According to the data presented in it, such a term as "pancreatic arrhythmia" does not exist. There may be extrasystole supra-ventricular (atrial) or ventricular. Also, taking into account such localization, paroxysmal tachycardia is distinguished. But pancreatic arrhythmia by definition does not happen.
In some cases, arrhythmia develops against a background of diseases of the pancreas, then maybe such a clinical significance of the state as pancreatic arrhythmia.
Other variants to link with the term "pancreatic arrhythmia" are extremely difficult. Therefore, the presentation material will consider the form of rhythm disturbance associated with diseases of the pancreas. This organ has a relatively small effect on the cardiovascular system, but nevertheless, with a disorder of its functioning, various types of rhythm disorders, such as tachycardia and extrasystoles, can be observed.
Video of the pancreas: structure, functions, blood supply, innervation, regional lymph nodes
Description of pancreatic arrhythmia
All arrhythmias are characterized by a simple or inconsistent cardiac rhythm. With some forms of violation there is an increase in heart rate, while others - a decrease. In addition, the patient can change geodynamics, but this is more characteristic of organic pathology, whereas pancreatic arrhythmia is considered a functional disease.
During development of pancreatic arrhythmias, when heart activity disorder is directly related to pancreatic dysfunction, tachycardia and premature cardiac contractions are most commonly observed.
The cardiovascular system has an indirect relation to the gastrointestinal tract. However, with severe pain in pancreatitis or other pancreatic disease, the nervous system is exacerbated, which in turn affects the work of the heart. Therefore, there are such dysfunctions as tachycardia or extrasystole.
The involvement of the cardiac rhythm (tachycardia) may occur with or without a rhythm driver change. When a pancreatic arrhythmia, the rhythm driver, usually, remains correct, that is, sinus. The only thing that is due to the intense effect of the sympathetic nervous system is a heartbeat. Such a violation of automatism is referred to as nemotopnoy and often does not represent a clear threat to the health or life of the patient.
Premature contractions (extrasystoles) are characterized by the appearance of ectopic foci in the heart muscle, which send premature signals to the contraction in addition to the current basic rhythm. As a result, the electrocardiogram appears extrasystole, and a person can feel unpleasant shocks in the region of the heart.
Symptoms of pancreatic arrhythmia
For arrhythmias, the following manifestations are characteristic:
- sensation of heartbeat;
- discomfort in the area of the heart, which can be expressed in unpleasant shocks, a feeling of squeezing, turning over, jumping.
- autonomic disorders in the form of dizziness, weakness, anxiety.
In the development of arrhythmia in the context of acute inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), in addition to the above signs, symptoms of the underlying disease are observed:
- pain - it can be as sharp cutting, and dull pulling, it all depends on the duration of the disease and the nature of the organic changes (edema, necrosis);
- dyspeptic manifestations - often accompanied by pancreatic disorders and expressed by nausea, vomiting, stool disorder, loss or loss of appetite;
- skin changes - manifest in the form of cyanoticity of different localization, for example, near the navel, on the sides of the abdomen, to the right of the navel. Also, the skin can take a yellowish tinge, which will indicate the transfer of the swollen gland of the bile duct.
Other diseases of the pancreas are expressed not less than characteristic features:
- Chronic pancreatitis - the absence of manifestations during the period of remission and the pain of a nocturnal or acute nature with irradiation in the lower back in the period of exacerbation.
- Cough cystic fibrosis - there are cramping pain in the intestine;
- Pancreatic cancer - episodic pains may appear in the early stages, in the later stages painful sensations become more pronounced;
- Pancreonecrosis - severe pains, with irradiation in the back or up to the clavicle, are most often localized in the upper arm, but may be behind the sternum, in some cases, cause loss of consciousness;
- Pancreatic cysts - small formations can provoke the appearance of minor, painful pains. Sensations become more pronounced when you increase the cyst that stretches the body capsule or pushes the nerve endings.
Correct recognition of the cause of pain will make it possible to quickly disable the unpleasant state. Therefore, the treatment of the pathology may be carried out not only by the cardiologist, but primarily the gastroenterologist - a doctor specializing in gastrointestinal diseases.
Causes of pancreatic arrhythmia
The development of pancreatic arrhythmia is preceded by the onset of pancreatic pathology. This can be:
- acute or chronic pancreatitis;
- diabetes mellitus;
- pancreatic necrosis;
- cystic fibrosis;
- pancreatic cancer;
Any of the listed diseases leads to changes in the structure of the pancreas. The more they are expressed, the stronger the clinic of the underlying disease manifests itself, and along with this there is a negative impact on the surrounding organs.
To arrhythmia arrhythmias against a background of a pancreatic disease can be the following factors:
- pregnancy - the body of a woman is rebuilt on the bearing of a child, therefore, under the action of hormonal oscillations, both pancreatitis and heart rhythm may develop;
- metabolism disorder - often observed in obesity, therefore, such a pathology is often accompanied by dysfunction of various organs, including the heart and pancreas;
- Improper nutrition - a greasy mixture will always be considered a fatty food against the background of alcohol intake, besides the abuse of smoked, sharp and other specific foods can be significantly harmful to their health;
- the use of certain drugs negatively affects the work of the pancreas, and with it the work of the heart may be broken;
- age-related changes - the appearance of a bunch of diseases is typical for the elderly, therefore, one person after 55 years can be observed not only pancreatitis, but also arrhythmia.
Types of pancreatic arrhythmias
Diseases of the pancreas practically do not cause organic changes in the heart muscle. An exception is diabetes mellitus, with which develops angiopathy (vascular damage), and with it - ischemic heart disease, leading to a number of cardiac pathologies.
Functional disorders of the heart rhythm are mainly manifested by nomotonic arrhythmias, in which the driver of the rhythm remains the main, that is, sinus. It is also possible to develop a disturbance of excitability expressed by extrasystoles.
Characterized by an increase in the heart rate in an adult person of more than 100 beats per minute. A similar form of arrhythmia often develops due to stress and is considered physiological. In such cases, special treatment for the disease is not required. During an attack of a pancreatitis just conditions are created, similar to a stressful situation, therefore it is quite evident the development of sinus tachycardia.
If arrhythmia in the form of a sinus tachycardia persists during the period of remission of the disease or after its cure, then a more thorough examination of the heart is required. Possible occurrence of organic changes, which are indicated by attacks of heartbeat.
Pathology from a group of disturbances of excitability, which are often formed against vegetative reactions and excessive emotional stress. With pancreatitis or other pancreatic disease, the risk of developing extrasystole increases in the event of an acute pain in the event of excessive arousal of the patient.
Prolonged disease can cause pancreatic arrhythmias, which in complex cases becomes permanent and requires specific treatment. In most cases, extrasystoles are functional and for their elimination it is enough to cure the main disease - pancreatic pathology.
Diagnosis of pancreatic arrhythmia
The start of diagnosis of rhythm disturbances begins in the doctor's office, where the patient is interviewed, examined and listened to by his phonendoscope. After revealing the smallest signs of arrhythmias that can be based on complaints alone, the patient is referred to the main method of heart disease research - electrocardiography.
ECG signs of sinus tachycardia:
- the sinus rhythm is preserved, as indicated by the presence of the tooth P before each ventricular complex;
- the rhythm is defined as correct, which is confirmed by comparatively equal distances between the teeth RR;
- the frequency of heart contractions is increased, which is evident from the age norms, which in adults, for example, make up 60-90 times per minute, and with heart rate tachycardia is more than 100 times per minute.
ECG signs of extrasystoles:
- on the electrocardiogram there are extraordinary contractions that can be singular, paired, monomorphic or polymorphic;
- After the extrasystole there is a compensatory pause, which is a prolonged period of electrical diastole.
Other specific research methods are used in the diagnosis of pancreas:
- Ultrasound of an organ - allows you to determine cysts, to assess the state of the pancreas, to identify pancreatitis.
- Computer tomography - is intended for careful study of the structure of the organ, its shape, size, the presence of pathological formations. In some cases, CT is administered in conjunction with a contrast agent.
- Laboratory studies - are done to evaluate the function of the pancreas. The most simple analysis is the determination of blood glucose levels. Also, feces and exhaled air can be taken on the study.
Treatment and prognosis of pancreatic arrhythmia
In most cases, functional arrhythmias, which often occur in diseases of the pancreas, do not require special treatment. It is enough to reduce the manifestations of the underlying disease (to stop an attack of pancreatic pain) so that the disturbed rhythm returns to normal.
In severe protracted conditions the flow of arrhythmias may be complicated. In such cases, either relaxing exposure or sedative medications should be used.
The use of antiarrhythmic drugs is indicated in patients with marked rhythm impairment or long-term flow.
The prognosis for functional arrhythmias associated with pancreatitis or other pancreatic disease is relatively favorable.The timely treatment of the underlying disease is important in maintaining normal livelihoods.
Prevention of pancreatic arrhythmia
To be reduced to the translation of acute processes during the remission. For this purpose special treatment of diseases of a pancreas is used, and also the following recommendations are carried out:
- I must adhere to the regime of work and rest.
- Meals must be carried out according to dietary preferences.
- To remove stress use elements of psychotherapy;
- Acceptable exercise will strengthen the whole body and heart in particular.
- Save or enhance your livelihood will help you to abandon bad habits.
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