Author Ольга Кияница
Any arrhythmias are accompanied by a change in the frequency of heart rate, which in normal conditions in adults is 60-90 beats per minute. In children, this figure is slightly higher, with the highest observed in newborns - 120-150 beats per minute. Under the influence of various factors, heart rate may vary, and in some diseases it is an important indicator of the working capacity of the heart.For example, when intestinal arrhythmia, the frequency of contractions is usually increased. There are other peculiarities of this disease.
Intestinal arrhythmia is not a common term in medicine, that is, it is not documented in the international classification of diseases 10 revisions. Under it is often understood ventricular arrhythmia.
The ability of the heart to make a sufficient release of blood into the bloodstream depends a lot on the condition of the ventricles, especially the left one. With disturbances of conduction, automatism or excitability, various arrhythmias arise, the most unpleasant of which are ventricular. With their appearance in the patient, the risk of sudden cardiac arrest or the development of chronic heart failure increases.
Video Violations of heart rhythm and conductivity on the monitor
Description of intestinal arrhythmia
Ventricular, or else commonly referred to as common intestinal enteritis, arrhythmia refers to commonly occurring rhythm disturbances. Of the total number of arrhythmias, the share of ventricles accounts for about 60%. The initial signs of the disease are often established in young and clinically healthy people. But most of this pathology comes in the elderly, when cardiological diseases are observed.
During the development of ventricular arrhythmias, a conduction or excitation violation of the hyza beam is observed.The more involved in the pathological process of the myocardium of the ventricles, the more severe and malignant the disease proceeds .
What is a ventricular, or intestinal, arrhythmia? First of all - possible occurrence of a number of adverse complications. This may be a more severe course of the underlying disease, or a disruption of the circulatory system, which causes both the brain and the heart to suffer.
Symptoms of intestinal arrhythmia
Clinic of ventricular, or intestinal, arrhythmias in many respects depends on the variety of the disease. Some disorders are benign, others pose a threat to the health or life of the patient. Therefore, from the general symptoms one can distinguish the following, most characteristic of arrhythmias:
increase or decrease in heart rate, indicating the presence of tachycardia or bradycardia, respectively;
- feeling in the area of heart discomfort or pain (cardialgia);
- Occurs suddenly and can independently pass or take off nitroglycerin.
The deterioration of the pumping function of the heart leads to weakness, dizziness, shortness of breath, swelling, and general well-being deteriorates significantly. In some cases, the reaction of the autonomic nervous system, which manifests itself in increased sweating, anxiety, health and life threats, is evident.
With pronounced organic changes in the heart muscle, the disease proceeds more heavily than with functional ones .
Attack of an arrhythmia in a patient may be weakly expressed or at all asymptomatic. In some cases, a person can not accurately tell what he is hurting. Then it is enough to measure the pulse to determine a rapid heartbeat or vice versa, a lack of pulse.
Causes of intestinal arrhythmia
Cardiac pathology plays a major role in the development of ventricular, or intestinal, arrhythmias. The activity of the ventricles is significantly altered in coronary heart disease, especially in myocardial infarction and angina pectoris.Cardiac insufficiency has a significant effect on the development of ventricular arrhythmias. Of the secondary causes, heart failure, cardiosclerosis, inflammatory processes occurring in the myocardium can be distinguished.
Negative effects on the heart and ventricles, in particular, are toxic substances , especially actively entering the body with alcohol, smoking, narcotic mixtures. In some cases, the body itself produces components that have a negative effect on cardiac activity. Such is found in thyrotoxicosis - hyperfunction of the thyroid gland.
Predisposing factors for the development of ventricular, or intestinal, arrhythmia are:
- age over 55 years old;
- malnutrition with insufficient amount of trace elements;
- frequent stressful situations;
- the transfer of sharp temperature vibrations;
- chronic fatigue.
Some medications also can cause ventricular arrhythmias. In particular, sympathomimetics act on the heart muscle as accelerators. Other medicines - diuretics, antiarrhythmics, cardiac glycosides - on the contrary, cause a slowing down of the heart rate.
Types of intestinal arrhythmia
In the development of ventricular arrhythmias, several major groups are distinguished: tachycardia, extrasystoles, fibrillations, tremor. Also, according to the clinical course of the disease by Bigger, several categories are distinguished:
- Benign - they include any disorder of the rhythm, most often extrasystoles, arising without the organic pathology of the heart and not a threat to life.
- Potentially malignant - the contractility of the left ventricle is somewhat reduced, so such arrhythmias can cause a number of complications. This category includes extrasystoles that occur more than 10 times per minute.
- Malicious - can cause the death of the patient. These include fibrillations, tachycardia, tremors, which have been eliminated through resuscitation measures. Also, in diseases of this category, left ventricular ejection is less than 40%.
There is such a notion as the triangle of the risk of sudden onset of arrhythmic death. It just includes the development of such complex conditions as acute myocardial ischemia, reduction of left ventricular ejection and one of the forms of malignant arrhythmias.
Ventricular tachycardia vary in duration of attacks:
Also, the skin is divided into morphology of ventricular complexes, which are fixed using an electrocardiogram.Accordingly, in this classification, the tachycardia is considered to be pirated, bidirectional, monomorphic, polymorphic and generated by an ectopic foci located in the path of the outflow of the right ventricle.
Diagnosis of intestinal arrhythmia
At the reception of the therapist, a survey and examination of the patient is conducted. These stages of diagnosis are very important, because the accuracy of the questions, sincere answers and correct external examination depends on further diagnostic tactics using instrumental methods.
The doctor must listen to the heart, measure the pressure, count the pulse. After this, antiarrhythmics are prescribed, suitable for initial treatment, and directions for further examinations are given. A full course of diagnostics may take up to two weeks if a person is not in the hospital.
The following suitable options are available from additional diagnostic methods:
- Electrocardiography is the main type of research that can reveal most of the cardiac arrhythmias. It takes up to 10 minutes for the exercise, the results are issued immediately or given to the doctor on the same day.
- Echocardiography is an important diagnostic method that determines the fraction of left ventricular ejection, so it is prescribed to almost all patients with cardiology pathology.
- Holter monitoring is done with the aim of identifying rare extrasystoles or paroxysms, which the standard ECG "did not have time" to fix.
- Definition of a pulse wave - for this purpose an optical sphygmograph is used for which the velocity of the pulse wave propagation is calculated. Normally, in the aortic region, this figure is 5.5-8.0 m / s.
Treatment of intestinal arrhythmia
Principles of therapy for rhythm disturbances are based on three directions:
Of medical preparations, antiarrhythmics are most commonly used. But because of their ability to give severe side effects, their appointment is justified only with potentially malignant and malignant forms of arrhythmia. Extrasystoles without clinical severity of treatment with antiarrhythmic drugs do not require.
In the presence of cardiac pathology, treatment is directed to its elimination. To prevent the progression of arrhythmia, it is very important to treat coronary heart disease, arterial hypertension, and heart failure.
With the progression of the underlying disease and arrhythmia developed on its background, such drugs as statins, diuretics, cardiac glycosides, and ACE inhibitors are prescribed.
Surgical treatment is the choice of the most appropriate type of intervention and is prescribed in the absence of effectiveness from medication exposure. They distinguish between pacing, implantation of the cardiology device and radiofrequency ablation.
Forecast for intestinal arrhythmia
The prognostic conclusion on the ventricular, or intestinal, arrhythmia depends on a number of factors:
- forms of the pathological process;
- the severity of clinical signs and the presence of circulatory disorders;
- the presence of other diseases, especially from the cardiovascular system.
Favorable prognosis may have functional arrhythmias, whereas pathological forms with severe cardiac disorders are prognostically unfavorable.
Prevention of intestinal arrhythmia
If there was a ventricular arrhythmia and it managed to stop, then you should conduct competent prevention of relapses of the disease. In this case, the following recommendations are helpful:
- Adhere to a balanced diet with minimal consumption or complete exclusion of smoked, salted, fried, canned foods and alcoholic beverages.
- Positive influence on the cardiac muscle is exerted by a moderate amount of physical activity.
- The exclusion of stressful situations does not help to aggravate the flow of arrhythmias.
- To calm the nervous system you can use massages, baths with suitable aromatic components.
Video Famous arrhythmologist Eduard Ivanitsky about how to treat heart rhythm disorders