Author Ольга Кияница
- 1 Description of hormonal tachycardia
- 2 Symptoms of hormone tachycardia
- 3 The causes of the occurrence of hormonal tachycardia
- 4 Types / photos of hormonal tachycardia
- 5 Diagnosis of hormone tachycardia
- 6 Treatment and prevention of hormonal tachycardia
Tachycardia most often characterizes a symptom that appears in various diseases, mainly associated with myocardial lesions.Some pathological conditions develop on the background of hormonal disorders, and in such cases, a rapid heartbeat may also occur.
Hormonal tachycardia is a clinical definition that is not documented in ICD-10, but often develops in middle-aged people, most often in women.
Diagnosis of the disease is carried out using electrocardiography and in case of detection, appropriate treatment should be prescribed. If in time to take measures for the treatment of hormonal tachycardia, then you will not need to worry whether this condition is dangerous, which in some cases is transmitted by the patients rather difficult.
Description of hormonal tachycardia
The hormonal background is an important link in the chain of all life processes. Many of them provide for the growth, development, multiplication and fading of a person. If there is a change in the hormonal (humoral) regulation of the body, then cardiac activity first of all suffers.
The effect of some hormones on the heart muscle (myocardium):
- Catecholamines (norepinephrine, adrenaline, dopamine) - are produced by the adrenal glands and have a direct effect on the heart through their actions, contributing to increased cardiac activity.
- Glucagon is produced by the pancreas and has an indirect effect on the heart in the form of an increase in the frequency of contractions.
- Iodine-containing hormones are produced by the thyroid gland and, like glucagon, have an indirect effect on the cardiac muscle, which begins to contract more often.
During the hormonal tachycardia, the mechanism of increasing the sinus node's automatism is most often observed, while the organic heart defect is diagnosed in rare cases.
Having direct connection with various kinds of hormonal imbalances, hormonal tachycardia is most often determined by increasing the production of hormones by the thyroid gland. Other endocrine disorders are also able to cause a hormonal failure and, as a consequence, cause the appearance of tachycardia. In particular, it is a disorder of the menstrual cycle in women, which is often accompanied by a rapid heartbeat. Also, recently, dysfunctions of the genitourinary system in males have increased, which leads to the appearance of tachycardia, respectively.
Symptoms of hormone tachycardia
During an attack, the patient feels a rapid heartbeat, which is often accompanied by symptoms of a vegetative disorder.This may be headache, dizziness, a feeling of lack of air, "jumping from the heart", painful sensations in the heart region.
For a normal state, the frequency of cardiac contractions is 60 to 90 beats per minute. This indicator refers to adults, in children, depending on the age of the heart rate can range from 100 to 170 beats per minute.
For a tachycardia developing in the type of sinus, characterized by a smooth increase in the heartbeat and the same end of the attack. In difficult cases, tachycardia appears not only during exercise but also in a calm condition, so it is important that the examination is carried out on time in order not to worry about how dangerous the disease is.
Paroxysmal or ventricular tachycardia, triggered by hormonal imbalances, develop less frequently and are more difficult for patients. The condition may be complicated by a half-bad or faint state, which can serve as additional evidence of the presence of organic pathology of the heart.
The causes of the occurrence of hormonal tachycardia
Pathology is directly related to the imbalance of humoral regulation of the heart, when, in these or other diseases, excessive production of hormones causing tachycardia begins.
Endocrine diseases causing hormonal tachycardia:
- Feohromocytoma is a tumor of the adrenal glands, most often benign, in which in 60% of cases, tachycardia is observed. Changes in the body are associated with excessive synthesis of tumors of catecholamines.
- Thyrotoxicosis is a hyperactivity of the thyroid gland, which begins to intensively produce thyroid hormones.
- Hyperparathyroidism - excess extraction of parathormone by the parathyroid gland. The hormone creates an imbalance in calcium metabolism, which indirectly affects the cardiovascular system.
- Itsenko-Cushing's syndrome - with this pathology, cortisol is produced in significant quantities, which is associated with a tumor of the pituitary gland or adrenal tumor.
- Acromegaly - When a tumor occurs in the pituitary gland, the growth hormone (somatotropin) begins to produce in excess, which leads to gigantism or an increase in various parts of the body (lower jaw, ears, palms, feet).
With all of the above pathologies in varying degrees, from 30% to 60%, arterial hypertension and various cardiovascular diseases, including the so-called hormonal tachycardia, are observed.
There are provocative factors causing hormonal tachycardia:
- beginning of menarche;
- pregnancy or postpartum period;
- menopausal period (male and female);
- taking contraceptives;
- hyperfunction of the sexual glands.
Depending on the cause, appropriate treatment is prescribed, which necessarily takes into account the peculiarities of the course of the underlying disease.
Types / photos of hormonal tachycardia
The pathology can be expressed in various forms of arrhythmia: paroxysmal tachycardia, sinus tachycardia. Paroxysmal disturbance of the rhythm is considered to be the least favorable as it can lead to ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac arrest.
Hormonal paroxysmal tachycardia
During disorders of humoral regulation, paroxysmal tachycardia can be observed, which is manifested by sudden heart attacks. The disease may be temporary, in complicated cases paroxysms occur once a month and more often.
Paroxysmal tachycardia with a hormonal imbalance is more likely to affect the atrium, although in some cases it affects the normal functioning of the ventricles. The danger of this form of hormone tachycardia is that the heart can not provide proper blood supply to vital organs. This, in turn, affects their working capacity.
Hormonal sinus tachycardia
The disease manifests itself at a hormonal disorder several times more often than paroxysmal tachycardia. This is due to the direct influence of a number of hormones on cardiac activity. In addition, in the heart, such hormonal substances as prostaglandins, adenosine and histamine are also produced, which also affects the activity of the sinus node.
With sinus tachycardia, which appears in the context of hormonal disorders, the heart rate is observed from 100 to 150 beats per minute, with the attack gradually beginning and ending, and the sinus rhythm remains the leader of cardiac activity. During hormonal disorders, tachycardia of inadequate flow is observed, that is, it can remain in rest, accompanied by symptoms such as a feeling of lack of air, severe palpitation, weakness, dizziness.
Diagnosis of hormone tachycardia
Conducted in view of the underlying disease. First of all, consultation of an endocrinologist is given, which gives directions to specific analyzes helping to determine the level of certain hormones. Standard ECG is used to determine the shape of the tachycardia, Holter monitoring can be performed, which is more informative in the case of paroxysmal tachycardia.
The following symptoms of tachycardia are seen on the ECG:
- The rhythm often remains sinusoid.
- QRS, or the ventricular complex, changes and resembles a blockage of the leg of Hyza or extrasystole with ventricular localization.
- In the presence of a deformed QRS complex, in rare cases, the tooth P is visible, most often it is not determined.
If the patient is supposedly an hereditary link with the hormonal imbalance, then a magnetic resonance imaging is performed. Also, this method of research helps in the determination of tumor neoplasms in the brain, adrenals.
Treatment and prevention of hormonal tachycardia
In the presence of hypertonic disease combined with hormonal tachycardia, standard hypotensive agents - calcium antagonists, alpha-adrenergic blockers, dopamine synthesis blockers - are prescribed. Some of them are able to lower the heart rate, which is still more effectively restored with the help of beta-blockers.
In the presence of tumor processes, surgical treatment is used. With laparoscopy, you can remove the pheochromocytoma or carry out an operation to remove the tumor in the brain. In rare cases, an irradiation method is used to slow tumor tissue growth.
Diseases of the thyroid gland can be treated with specific medications, with the inclusion of the drugs that normalize cardiac activity in the target list. These may be selective or non-selective beta-blockers, with the latter variety of drugs able to slightly reduce the level of thyroid hormones.
Specific prophylaxis of hormonal therapy does not exist. To reduce the risk of arrhythmias occurring against the backdrop of imbalance in hormonal activity, general guidelines for strengthening the cardiovascular system need to be implemented.