Hypotension

Many people find such a violation of blood pressure such as hypotension. In some cases, the disease is latent and does not pose a particular risk to health. In other patients, the disease is acute, which threatens human life, and therefore requires immediate medical intervention.

Hypotension is a condition characterized by lowering systolic pressure to a level of 100 mm Hg.and diastolic - 60 mm Hg. and below. This disease can develop independently or act as a symptom in other pathological conditions.

"Arterial hypotension (from other Greek, ὑπό - under, below, and Latin tensio - tension) is a decrease in blood pressure of more than 20% of the original / normal values."

Wikipedia

Hypotension is determined at the reception by the family doctor or during prophylactic examinations. In a chronic course, it does not require specific treatment, although with a significant decrease in the quality of life of the patient, suitable medicines prescribed by the doctor can be used.

Video Hypotension - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment. Reduced pressure

What is hypotonia?

Normally, an average blood pressure value of 120/80 is determined in adults. If there is a decrease to 90/60 or below, they say hypotension. This disease is still known under other definitions - arterial hypotension or hypotension.

Today, the following classification of hypotension is most often used:

  • Acute form.
  • Chronic form
  • Secondary chronicly-occurring hypotonia

Hypotension is often considered as physiological, that is, it is considered a variant of the norm. A person with a reduced pressure can normally feel, while at a slight increase immediately there are uncomfortable feelings. Therefore, such a state is not considered dangerous. Moreover, the physiological hypotonia (a similar definition was first used by G. F. Lang in 1929 and 1938) makes it possible not to be afraid of heart attacks and strokes, which are so characteristic of arterial hypertension.

For athletes, often trained and in good physical form, reduced blood pressure is a sign of good health and fitness. At that time, in sufficient quantity of the population, excessively low blood pressure triggers dizziness and even a faint state. In other cases, it indicates serious violations of the cardiovascular, endocrine, or nervous systems.

In medical practice, blood pressure is considered to be too low when there are severe symptoms

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Statistics on arterial hypotension:

  • The disease occurs in 2-4% of the planet's population.
  • In women of childbearing age (that is, from 20 to 40 years old), hypotonia occurs 5 times more often than in men.
  • Among men who have hypotension, a third is a reduction in libido.
  • In children, hypotension is defined from 3% to 21% of cases.
  • Among children, hypotonia often affects adolescents than younger schoolchildren (14% and 3% respectively).
  • Among young people (aged 20 to 30 years), low blood pressure is found in 5-7% of the cases, of which about a third are physiological hypotension.
  • Hypotension as a symptom is determined in 20% of patients infectious and therapeutic direction.

The danger of pathological hypotonia is that, with very low blood pressure, the brain and other vital organs do not get enough oxygen and nutrients, which leads to a life-threatening condition called shock.

Pathogenesis

From a biophysiological point of view, hypotension develops in those cases where:

  • Impact and minute heart rate decrease;
  • the peripheral resistance of the vascular bed decreases;
  • the amount of circulating blood is reduced;
  • the return of venous blood to the heart decreases.

These hemodynamic changes may occur both in isolation and in combination with other factors of influence.

Chronically flowing hypotension is most often characterized by functional changes in higher autonomic centers of vascular regulation. Sometimes the function of the renin-angiotensin system is insufficient, which also affects the regulation of blood pressure. Additionally, sensitivity of vascular receptors to neurotransmitters is disturbed; corticosteroids and aldosterone deficiency may be observed.

Hypotension is orthostatic, and then its occurrence is associated with a violation of the baroreflex at a different level of passage of the nerve impulse. In particular, the afferent part of the nerve fibers, by which the pulse is transmitted to the brain, and the efferent part - the signal is transmitted from the GM to the tissues or organs.

Hypotonia often acts as a symptom that manifests itself in various diseases.

Diagnosis of hypotension is important, since the correction system of medical interventions depends on the degree of blood pressure reduction.

Reasons

Hypotension develops under the influence of various factors and against a background of a large number of diseases. Also, a lot depends on the form of the disease, so all the causes of chronic hypotonia are divided into the following groups:

  • Exogenous factors - related to the effects of the environment on the body. This includes emotional over-tension, social and housing disadvantages, frequent violations of the day's regime, mental strain and frequent stress.
  • Lack of mobility - hypotonia often develops in the background of hypodynamia; therefore, in the absence of other diseases, in addition to reduced blood pressure, this factor should be eliminated as quickly as possible.
  • Age features - many children during the active period suffer from hypotension, while delaying physical development can also affect the level of arterial pressure.
  • Personality characteristics - with constant intrapersonal conflict, hypotonia often develops. Also, the reason is overestimated self-esteem and a hypertrophied sense of duty.
  • The outbreaks of chronic infection - if a child often and long ill, it can cause a hypotony with all the consequent consequences in the form of weakness, pronounced fatigue, etc.
  • Unfavorable heredity - while there is no reliable data on the genes that are responsible for transmitting from the parents to the children signs of hypotension. Nevertheless, on the basis of observations, it is noted that from the mother the child is more often transferred hypotonia than from his father. At the same time pregnant, sick with hypotonia, it is more difficult to bear the process of wearing. In addition, the child may have perinatal pathologies of the central nervous system.

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The risk factors for chronic hypotension are:

  1. Frequent lack of sleep.
  2. Severe dehydration and blood loss.
  3. Poor nutrition and the lack of vitamins and trace elements associated with it.
  4. Humidity and other predisposing climatic conditions.

Causes of Acute Hypotension:

  • Strong trauma, which is accompanied by severe bleeding.
  • Acute heart failure.
  • Severe infectious diseases.
  • Thromboembolism of the pulmonary artery.
  • Anaphylactic shock.
  • Myocardial infarction.
  • Heavy arrhythmias.
  • Swallowing Quebec
  • Sepsis.

Species

Hypotension is differentiated into several types, which distinguish between themselves the clinical severity and the nature of the occurrence.

In the clinical practice, the following forms of hypotension are considered:

  • Acute symptomatic
  • Primary
  • Secondary
  • Orthostatic
  • Postprandial hypotension

Acute symptomatic hypotension

With this pathology there is a sharp decrease in blood pressure. This condition is called shock and it is very dangerous to life, since organs and tissues do not receive enough oxygen in the blood they need in sufficient quantities. This can happen in the course of serious medical procedures. Also, the cause may be severe infections, heart attacks, severe allergic reactions, or a large loss of blood. If severe hypotension develops then an ambulance should be called immediately.

Primary hypotonia

Other common definitions of this pathology are essential, or idiopathic, hypotonia. Is an independent disease.

On one assumption, it develops against the backdrop of neurosis-like disorders that affect vascular motility centers. Often arises after prolonged psycho-emotional overload and stress.

Secondary hypotonia

This form of reduced blood pressure basically develops against the background:

  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Gastrointestinal diseases (pancreatitis, cholecystitis, hepatitis)
  • Urinary tract pathologies (cystitis, prostatitis).
  • Cardiovascular disorders.

The appearance of secondary hypotension is caused by brain trauma, tuberculosis, rheumatism, and the inappropriate use of some medications.

Orthostatic hypotension

With orthostatic (postural) hypotension, the body of a person does not react quickly when rising, which contributes to the accumulation of blood in the legs. Thus, less blood returns to the heart, and it is not so much that it is sufficiently transferred to organs and tissues, due to which the blood pressure drops.

Postural hypotonia is fairly common, especially in the elderly. Today, it is determined almost every third adult over 65 years of age. The risk of developing the disease increases if a person takes certain medications, uses fluids in insufficient quantities or spends some time in bed. Also, a hypotension can be triggered by a hot tub.

Postprandial hypotension

Blood pressure is lowered after a person has been drinking abundantly. The organs of the digestive system are flooded with blood. The body is not able to adequately respond and maintain blood pressure at the proper level in the rest of the body. Symptoms may occur within two hours of eating, but usually occur earlier. This is another common type of hypotension that occurs in the elderly.

Clinic

If the blood pressure is naturally low, then it is unlikely that any symptoms will be determined, so in such cases it is not necessary to worry.

However, if the arterial pressure drops below normal, then the following symptoms may occur:

  • dizziness;
  • fainting;
  • rapid heartbeat;
  • blurred vision;
  • a feeling of confusion or an inability to concentrate.

In orthostatic hypotension, these symptoms generally occur when you have to get up from a sedentary position or lying down. The highest severity of symptoms is noted within the first few seconds or minutes after lifting. If there is a tendency to develop symptoms after a meal, then this indicates postprandial hypotension.

Diagnostics

The patient is examined by a family doctor or a specialist. During the examination, the methods of percussion, palpation and auscultation are used, which allow to identify violations of various organs and systems of the body. Hereditary predisposition, as well as risk factors, which often indicate the direction of diagnosis, are determined. A blood pressure measurement is required.

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From instrumental research methods it is used:

  • Electrocardiography.
  • Dopplerography.
  • Ultrasound of the heart.

As a rule, it is not difficult to establish the presence of hypotension. Matter is more important and sometimes more difficult to determine the cause of lowering blood pressure. It is extremely important to make an effective treatment in the future, not only the hypotonia itself, but also the main illness that caused the disorder.

Treatment

Specific treatment does not require physiological hypotension and such that does not manifest expressed weakness and dizziness. If the person has been swollen, then urgent medical help is called!

With a relatively favorable flow of hypotension, initially, non-pharmacological methods of exposure are used:

  • Massage
  • Dietary nutrition.
  • Medicines based on herbs (cowberry leaf, birch buds).
  • Physiotherapy, among which is often used electrophoresis, electroshock, reflexotherapy using needles.

With a sharp drop in blood pressure, some self-help measures may be required.

Self-help in the development of hypotension

There are several simple steps that anyone can take to reduce the severity of the symptoms of common types of hypotension:

  • Get up slowly from sitting or lying position, especially if the person just wakes up.
  • It is necessary to climb so that it would be possible to cross legs in a standing position, to stand on the toes and at the same time strain calf muscles. This helps the bloodstream to return to the heart faster, which reduces the symptoms of the disease. The only such actions are not suitable for everyone - the cross legs and standing on the toes can be risky for people with poor equilibrium.
  • It is worth taking care when leaving hot baths, baths or showers.
  • The head of the bed should be raised a little.
  • You should drink plenty of fluids.

It is important to remember that if you feel weak, you should immediately sit or lie down. It is useful to raise your legs so that they are above the level of the heart. If symptoms do not go away, you should seek medical attention immediately.

If hypotonia is very disturbing to the patient and does not pass on the background of non-pharmacological therapy, then they will resort to taking pharmaceuticals from the following groups:

  • Stimulants of the central nervous system.
  • Cholinolytics
  • Antidepressants
  • Diuretics
  • Tranquilizers.
  • Nootropics

When correctly selected psychotropic and vegetotropic therapy, the condition of the patient, as a rule, improves.

Forecast and prevention

With a weak hypotension or a physiological hypotension, the prognosis is favorable.

Orthostatic and other similar forms of hypotension can proceed more or less favorably, and with a significant violation of the quality of life of the patient.

The course of secondary hypotonia depends largely on the degree of severity of the underlying disease. If the disease is at an early stage of development, then a favorable prognostic conclusion is given. Severe diseases, especially in the stage of decompensation, cause extremely pronounced hypotonia, which in the complex can lead the patient to death.

As a preventive measure for hypotension, it is better to use such a proven method as a healthy lifestyle. For this, the following recommendations are followed:

  1. The mode of the day should be strictly observed.
  2. It is necessary to go to bed in a timely manner, which enters the mode of the day, but this item is singled out separately because of its special importance.
  3. Every day you need to drink enough fluids.
  4. Fresh air is an excellent sedative medicine, so it is advisable to walk for several hours before bed.
  5. Aqueous procedures have a positive effect on the cardiovascular system, so if you need to swim or at least take a regular shower and bath.
  6. Proper nutrition will strengthen the body and increase the tone of blood vessels, so it is worthwhile to use more foods rich in micronutrients and vitamins.
  7. If possible, one should engage in sports, but not professional, otherwise it will not escape the jumps of pressure, which is worse than a stable hypotonia.

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