- 1 General description of pressure
- 2 Description of diastolic pressure
- 3 Comparison of diastolic and systolic pressure
- 4 Measurement of systolic and diastolic pressure
- 5 Clinical significance and cardiovascular risk
- 6 High diastolic pressure
- 7 Low diastolic pressure
- 8 Methods to maintain diastolic pressure in normal
- 9 Key points
Blood pressure (BP) is the force exerted by the heart on the arteries that show resistance, which sets the blood flow in motion throughout the body. Blood pressure is one of the most important human biomarkers.
Blood pressure is measured in the form of two indicators - systolic blood pressure (upper) and diastolic blood pressure (lower). The mechanism of their formation is different, as is the appointment.
With age, the determination of blood pressure is of particular importance, but in some cases the measurement of diastolic pressure alone provides important information. In particular, the level of blood pressure depends a lot on the age and even the physique of a person.
Video: Blood pressure. What does the lower pressure mean
General description of pressure
The heart functions as a muscular pump that rhythmically contracts and pushes blood through the large arteries. From there, the blood is directed throughout the body through a system of small vessels in the form of arterioles and capillaries. Thus, oxygen is delivered to all tissues.
The resistance exerted by arteries and vessels of smaller caliber is very important. In the wall of blood vessels there are muscles that cause them to narrow, which increases the resistance and, consequently, the pressure inside the vascular system.
The principle of the cardiovascular system can be compared with a garden hose and a decrease in the size of the output opening. The pressure in the hose can also be increased due to the larger amount of water flowing out of the faucet.Similarly, the circulating blood volume and the force of contraction of the heart muscle can affect blood pressure.
If blood pressure is too high, the heart must work much harder to maintain an adequate flow of blood to organs and tissues.
Pressure value for life
Blood pressure is vital. In fact, when a person dies from a so-called “shock,” it is usually associated with an excessive drop in blood pressure. Against this background, inadequate perfusion of vital organs such as the brain and kidneys occurs. With a lack of oxygen in these tissues, organs can no longer function.
Physiological changes in blood pressure
Significant changes occur in all people, depending on the needs of the organism. When exercising, muscles need more oxygen, which leads to an increase in heart rate and more intensive blood pumping through the vessels. As a result, blood pressure rises.
Anxiety over emotional stress also contributes to high blood pressure due to the “fight or run” response effect. Acute or prolonged chronic pain can likewise increase pressure. The consumption of alcohol, nicotine and caffeine most often leads to a periodic increase in blood pressure, and in severe cases - to hypertension.
In some people, high blood pressure is observed only in a hospital setting. This pathology is called white coat hypertension. Outside the hospital walls are normal. Also, blood pressure rises when a person is active, plays sports or works physically.
During a restful sleep or rest, the need for oxygen decreases, so blood pressure is usually reduced. The lowest blood pressure is determined by day, and the highest - during awakening in the morning.
Description of diastolic pressure
Normally, in an adult, blood pressure is 120/80, with the number above means systolic pressure, and lower - diastolic. It is measured in millimeters of mercury.
- Diastolic blood pressure is the pressure between the heartbeats when the heart is at rest.
- Systolic pressure is the pressure created with each heartbeat. This happens during the contraction of the heart muscle, so this phase of the heart is also actively called systole.
- Impulse pressure is the difference between two indicators.
If both or one indicator is elevated, then the risk of heart disease, stroke, or kidney damage increases.
The height of the diastolic pressure often depends on the degree of patency of the capillaries, the pulse and the state of the vascular wall (its elasticity). Thus, an increase in the lower pressure can be observed when:
- High resistance of vascular walls.
- Frequent pulse (HR).
- Low elastic resistance of large arteries.
Diastolic pressure is also called “renal” because in the capillaries the heart rate no longer exerts its influence, but only the muscle tone of small vessels. It, in turn, depends on the amount of renin excreted by the kidneys.
Simple blood pressure formula: Blood pressure = Cardiac output x Peripheral resistance.
Comparison of diastolic and systolic pressure
For clarity, a table is presented in which the main characteristics of systolic and diastolic blood pressure are indicated.
|Diastolic pressure||Systolic pressure|
|Definition||This is the pressure exerted on the walls of various arteries between heart beats when the heart is relaxed, that is, during diastole .||It measures the height of the pressure that the blood exerts on the arteries and blood vessels when the heart contracts, that is, during systole .|
|Arterial pressure||Diastolic pressure is the minimum pressure in the arteries.||Systolic pressure is the maximum pressure exerted on the walls of the arteries.|
|Importance with age||Diastolic readings are especially important for monitoring blood pressure in young people.||The importance of systolic blood pressure increases with age.|
|Ventricles of the heart||Filled with blood.||Are reduced.|
|Blood vessels||Relaxed||Are reduced.|
|Blood pressure measurement.||The lower index is diastolic pressure.||The upper index is systolic pressure.|
|Etymology||“Diastolic” is derived from the Greek word for stretching.||“Systolic” is derived from the Greek word for “smoothing or shortening”.|
|Abnormal blood pressure (in adults):|
|Hypotension||less than 60 mm Hg||less than 90 mm Hg|
|Perpertonia||81 - 89 mm Hg. st.||121 - 139 mm Hg|
|First degree hypertension||90 - 99 mm Hg st.||140 - 159 mm Hg|
|Second degree hypertension||100 mmHg st.||160 mm Hg|
Measurement of systolic and diastolic pressure
The medical device used to measure blood pressure is called a sphygmomanometer . A special cuff tightly wraps the shoulder (most often the right one), positioning it so that the bottom edge of the cuff is 2-3 cm higher than the elbow bend. The headband of the stethoscope is placed above the ulnar artery, then the air is pumped into the cuff until the sounds heard in the tubes cease to be determined. Then the air is slowly released, for which a special plug is gradually unscrewed in the tonometer.
When the air is slowly released from the cuff, the blood begins to flow again through the arteries and then at a certain moment the blows are heard again in the arms. This point of greatest pressure is called systolic.
When most of the air is released from the cuff, the pressure exerted on the arm is so small that the sound of blood pulsing on the walls of the arteries is reduced, and the blows are not heard again. The last sounds heard when air is released from the cuff correspond to diastolic pressure.
Clinical significance and cardiovascular risk
In the past, much attention has been paid to systolic pressure, but today it is recognized that high diastolic and impulse pressure is also of clinical importance. In some cases, these indicators are risk factors. Also, it seems that an excessive decrease in diastolic pressure may actually increase the risk of developing heart disease. Probably due to the change in the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure.
Cardiovascular risk in people of middle age and older is often more accurately predicted by measuring systolic blood pressure. Diastolic blood pressure can be used to better understand the risks of systolic blood pressure. [1 - Systolic And Diastolic Blood Pressures Together More For Predicting Cardiovascular Risk. University of California - Irvine.February 19, 2009]
In a video titled “What is the clinical significance of systolic and diastolic blood pressure”, Dr. Len Saputo leads a study published in The Lancet, which examines how systolic and diastolic blood pressure in 30-year-olds can predict the risk of cardiovascular diseases for later life. He explains that the difference between the two types of blood pressure is probably more important than previously thought.
Video: What is the Clinical Importance of Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure
Diastolic readings are especially important for monitoring blood pressure in young people. It is also known that systolic blood pressure tends to increase with age as a result of hardening of the arteries in the setting of atherosclerosis.
High diastolic pressure
The presence of high diastolic blood pressure is a sign that the blood vessels have become less elastic, solidified and damaged. The indicator is not a static value, since it tends to fluctuate during the day from 60 to 80 mm Hg. due to various impact factors.
The presence of flexible vessels allows the body to properly manage the fluctuations of blood pressure. However, when blood vessels become stiff, the chances of an adequate response or obstruction of the vessel increase dramatically.
Diastolic pressure is above 90 mm Hg. st. indicates the presence of diastolic hypertension.
Causes of High Diastolic Pressure
There are several reasons for high diastolic blood pressure exceeding 90 mm Hg. (in adults). The most likely causes of a violation are as follows.
- Primary hypertension . This disease is not associated with known causes of development, according to the type of hard or diseased blood vessels. It is believed that primary hypertension is manifested due to a combination of genetic disorders and environmental factors. Diastolic hypertension is primarily manifested in young people. The disease is not believed to be related to any particular cause, but may be caused by an imbalance of endocrine hormones or an improper contraction of the tiny muscles of the blood vessel wall.
- Endocrine and renal diseases. The endocrine system consists of glands that secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system. These hormones are able to target distant organs, helping regulate physiology and behavior. The thyroid gland is one of these endocrine structures and can cause an abnormal increase in hormone levels, which lead to an increase in diastolic blood pressure. Kidney problems in the form of renal failure are also a common cause of increased blood pressure.
- Obstructive sleep apnea. This condition is characterized by recurring episodes of cessation of breathing during one night. Since most patients with sleep apnea are obese, this also causes an increase in blood pressure. Nevertheless, some studies have shown that high blood pressure in these patients can occur independently of obesity.
- Bad food . Consumption of foods high in fat and salt can lead to an increase in blood pressure and even damage to blood vessels.
- Smoking and drinking alcohol . It is known that nicotine found in cigarette smoke can cause spasm of blood vessels, increase heart rate and decrease oxygen levels in the heart muscle. Alcohol consumption can indirectly lead to an increase in blood pressure, since it often has an elevated calorie count, which can lead to weight gain.
- Sedentary lifestyle . Insufficient physical activity can cause the development of diseases associated with weight gain and increased cholesterol levels.
- Age and gender . Aging is considered one of the most common factors contributing to the development of high blood pressure for both men and women. However, men over 45 years old and women around 55 years old most often begin to have health problems associated with high blood pressure.
The main symptoms of high diastolic pressure:
- Night sweats and sweating.
- Sleep disorder
- Bleeding from the nose.
- Blurred vision.
Low diastolic pressure
Various reasons can reduce diastolic pressure, but there are the most pronounced factors of influence. In case of their timely elimination you can positively affect your health.
Diastolic pressure is less than 60 mm Hg. indicates the presence of diastolic hypotension.
- Drugs are a common cause of lowering diastolic pressure. There are some drugs that help reduce diastolic blood pressure more than systolic. In particular, a class of drugs called alpha blockers or central acting antihypertensive drugs most often cause a decrease in diastolic blood pressure.
- Allergic reactions , especially severe reactions, known as anaphylaxis, can cause hypotension. Usually diastolic and systolic blood pressure decreases. Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening condition that usually includes other symptoms, such as difficulty breathing, itching, redness of the skin, urticaria, and a swollen face or throat. Red skin is caused by dilated blood vessels beneath the surface of the skin. This expansion leads to a decrease in pressure on the walls of the arteries, which causes a drop in pressure.
- Septicemia. A serious infection that enters the bloodstream, known as septicemia, can also cause a decrease in blood pressure. Sepsis is often accompanied by fever and generalized redness of the skin, which can lead to dysfunction of organs of the body, such as the heart, lungs and kidneys. Very low blood pressure caused by septicemia is called septic shock, and this condition is life threatening.
- Endocrine disorders . Inadequate synthesis of hormones by the endocrine glands can lead to diastolic hypotension, which is often accompanied by systolic hypotension. Such disorders are mainly associated with thyroid insufficiency (hypothyroidism), parathyroid dysfunction (hypoparathyroidism), adrenal dysfunction, Addison's disease. Hypotension is also a common symptom of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Some people with diabetes develop hypotension even without hypoglycemia. It can be associated with diabetes, resulting in damage to the nerves that help maintain normal blood pressure.
- Heart disturbances . When the heart cannot pump normal amounts of blood to all parts of the body, blood pressure decreases. Too low or high heart rate can contribute to the development of hypotension. Abnormal heart rhythms, such as atrial fibrillation, can also cause hypotension. Low diastolic pressure often occurs with heart valve disease, myocardial infarction, or heart failure. When aortic insufficiency is observed, the diastolic pressure decreases, but the systolic pressure usually remains normal.
- Pulmonary embolism . A blood clot that blocks blood circulation in the vessels of the lungs causes a pulmonary embolus. This can reduce blood pressure, especially if the thrombosis is extremely pronounced. This is because blood from the right side of the heart cannot reach its left half, from which it spreads throughout the body.
Other causes of diastolic hypotension can be both high and low body temperature. In such cases, hypotension occurs through temperature effects on the heart rate, the ability of the heart to pump blood, or the width of the lumen of blood vessels.
Severe liver disease also tends to increase the blood vessels in the body, reducing diastolic blood pressure. Long bed rest often leads to diastolic hypotension.
Against the background of many neurological conditions, diastolic pressure decreases. It is usually associated with impaired normal nerve reflexes in the body, which help maintain blood pressure within normal limits. Spinal cord or head injuries, strokes, Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis are examples of neurological conditions that can cause a decrease in blood pressure, including diastolic pressure.
Main symptoms of low diastolic pressure:
- Dehydration and unusual thirst.
- Insufficient concentration of attention.
- Blurred vision.
- Cold, sticky, pale skin.
- Fast, fast breathing.
Methods to maintain diastolic pressure in normal
There are various ways to strengthen the cardiovascular system, which allow you to keep the pressure in the normal range. A lot of attention is paid to lifestyle changes and taking appropriate medications, but nutrition and rejection of bad habits and some food are considered to be just as important. Most of the recommendations below are suitable for diastolic hypertension, but some of them can be successfully used with reduced diastolic pressure.
- Need to quit smoking.
- Eat more healthy and healthy foods made from fresh vegetables, fruits, and low-fat / salt foods.
- Maintain a healthy weight.
- Regular exercise.
- Moderate use of alcohol.
- Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors.
- Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers.
- Beta blockers.
- Calcium channel blockers.
- Renin inhibitors
- Diet for high / low diastolic blood pressure.
Most of the groups of drugs used mainly for diastolic hypertension. When hypotension is most often resorted to the elimination of the underlying cause that caused a decrease in diastolic pressure.
Treating high diastolic blood pressure in natural ways means keeping healthy for the heart. The following list covers some useful nutritional guidelines for the treatment of diastolic hypertension.
- Healthy foods
Fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, seeds, legumes and low-fat dairy products, as well as foods high in potassium, can naturally help improve heart health and lower diastolic blood pressure. It is highly recommended to refuse products that are processed or contain large amounts of sugar and fat.
- Sodium reduction
Consuming too much sodium (salt) leads to water retention, which in turn causes the heart and arteries to work harder to pump blood. It is necessary to consume no more than 1500 mg (1.5 g) of sodium every day. In addition, sea salt may contain artificial additives that are harmful to health. To simplify the use of the product you need to know that one teaspoon of salt contains 2300 mg of sodium. Studies show that on average, an adult eats 3,400 mg of sodium daily, more than twice the recommended amount.
- Less alcohol
While moderate alcohol intake can improve health, drinking more than one or two alcoholic beverages per day most often increases blood pressure and causes other adverse health effects.
- Caffeine reduction
It is believed that caffeine blocks the hormone that is responsible for maintaining the arteries in good condition. Because of this, it makes sense to reduce caffeine intake. Coffee, energy and carbonated drinks containing caffeine and caffeine-like substances in large quantities, according to the results of many studies, adversely affect health and especially the heart. If you prefer, you can switch to natural teas that do not contain caffeine.
- Reduced consumption of red meat
Regular consumption of red meat can increase diastolic blood pressure and increase the risk of heart disease. The high fat content in red meat contributes to the growth of cholesterol and blood pressure. If you wish, you can switch to eating chicken, turkey and fish.
- Increased omega-3 fatty acid intake
Foods containing omega-3 fatty acids can improve heart health and lower blood pressure, which in turn reduces the risk of heart disease. Omega-3 rich fatty acids products: salmon, tuna, mackerel, sardines, tilapia and walnuts.
Studies show that one fresh papaya, eaten on an empty stomach every day for a month, can reduce diastolic pressure.If you want to try this method, you need to know that after papaya has been consumed, you should not eat anything for at least two hours.
- Onion juice
You can take two teaspoons with a half of onion juice and half a teaspoon of honey every day for one to two weeks. This method will allow a natural way to reduce diastolic blood pressure.
This juicy berry contains an organic compound called citrulline, which after consumption turns into an amino acid and promotes the synthesis of nitric oxide. This nitric oxide helps to expand blood vessels, thereby reducing blood pressure.Best to eat fresh watermelon in the morning.
- Garlic and Garlic Milk
It is considered one of the most effective natural remedies for the elimination of diastolic hypertension. It is good to use at the risk of thrombosis, hardening of the arteries and high cholesterol. Best to use fresh garlic. You can also make garlic milk: heat the milk, after which 10 cloves of garlic are boiled in it. When the tool has cooled, before using it, if desired, you can add a little honey.
- Cayenne pepper
Sometimes it is advised to mix one teaspoon of cayenne pepper with half a cup of warm water, after which the remedy is drunk.
- Lemon and honey water
This remedy has been used as a medicine for many years to prevent the development of the common cold, but it can also be consumed with high blood pressure. You need to squeeze half a lemon in 100 grams of water, and then add one teaspoon of raw honey. Drink this tool should be every two hours until improvement.
- Fenugreek seeds
It is necessary to use one teaspoon of fenugreek seeds in the morning and evening on an empty stomach and so continue for 10-15 days, drinking water each time. Fenugreek seeds today are quite common in cooking, as they are a common ingredient in South Asian dishes.
- Coconut water
Coconut fluid contains potassium and magnesium, which can regulate muscle function, including cardiac muscle.Research on hypertension and coconut water continues; however, some people report using it helps lower blood pressure.
Additionally, you should follow a number of recommendations:
- Reducing the impact of stress factor . The body releases chemicals and hormones that can temporarily narrow blood vessels. This happens when a person experiences emotional stress. Stress also speeds up the heart. It is believed that prolonged stress exposure increases the risk of heart problems, such as stroke and heart attacks. The use of time for relaxation and special exercises to reduce stress can be very useful.
- Sports / fitness. Physical activity allows you to strengthen the heart muscle, improve blood circulation and help the heart pump from the blood with less effort. Walking, jogging, cycling, dancing or swimming are all activities that can be added to your daily routine that are beneficial to your health. It is recommended to do exercises for at least 30 minutes every day, seven days a week. It is important to keep in mind that the type of exercise usually dictates how long it will take to complete it. In addition, you need to consult with your doctor before you begin to perform the exercises.
- Weight reduction . People with increased weight and high body mass index (BMI) often have high diastolic blood pressure. This is because in such cases, the heart has to work harder to pump blood throughout the body. Exercise and a healthy diet can help a person lose those extra pounds. As a rule, a man should have a waist size of less than 100 cm, and women - less than 90.
- Cholesterol control . Regardless of weight or size, you need to regularly check the amount of cholesterol in the blood. High cholesterol can increase blood pressure. Some people do screening every time they visit their doctor.This practice is especially recommended for people over 40 years.
If there are signs of a violation of blood pressure (blurred vision, rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, dizziness or weakness), you should immediately consult a doctor. In most cases, people with high blood pressure have no symptoms, so the disease is called the “silent killer”. In such cases, people usually do not know that they have high blood pressure, as long as they do not measure it. That is why the definition of blood pressure is a common practice at the reception at any doctor.
Diastolic pressure is the lowest of the two determined during blood pressure measurement.
- In an adult, the normal diastolic pressure can fluctuate within 60 mm of mercury. st.
- With a decrease or increase in diastolic pressure talk about diastolic hypertension or hypotension.
- Treatment and diet for hypertension and hypotension is different, but in both cases you need to follow the rules of a healthy lifestyle.
- In complex cases, not only the diastolic pressure increases, but also the systolic pressure rises, and then appropriate appropriate therapy should be carried out.
Video: Lower pressure. Kidney, diastolic pressure. Pressure correction