Author Ольга Кияница
Tachycardia is not a disease, but a symptom that occurs on the background of various physiological and pathological conditions. Some diseases contribute to the creation of favorable conditions for the development of a rapid heartbeat, in other cases tachycardia is defined as a separate form of arrhythmia, with characteristic symptoms and ECG signs.
Arterial tachycardia is not a separate form of arrhythmia, therefore in clinical practice often acts as a separate symptom. Often associated with arterial hypertension and other disorders of the vascular system.
The severity of the rapid heart beat most often depends on the dynamics of the development of the underlying disease. In particular, the heart rate and the general condition of the patient can be made more or less accurate predictive conclusion. To understand the risk of arterial tachycardia, it is worthwhile to get acquainted with the mechanism of development of this condition.
Description of arterial tachycardia
Tachycardia is manifested by a rapid heartbeat, which in adults can be 100 bp / min or more. In children, everything depends on age. Normally, the highest heart rate is observed in newborns, then the frequency with age decreases and in adolescence it is an adult norm. Therefore, for example, up to 1 month, the heart rate can range from 110 to 170 beats / min and this will be considered a norm, above 170 - tachycardia.
At the heart of the development of tachycardia are various mechanisms, one of which is directly related to the functioning of vessels. He is called a hypodynamic response. Converts to an increase in heart rate as a result of lowering blood pressure. At the heart of this mechanism lies the reflex feedback, which constantly monitors the tone of the vessels.
Hypodynamic response often develops with insufficient blood volume in the circulatory system, which may be due to blood loss or excessive dehydration of the body. In some cases, abrupt transition from one position to another (for example, from a lying position sharply to sit or rise) also causes a decrease in pressure in the vessels, resulting in an arterial tachycardia.
Symptoms of arterial tachycardia
Patients during the onset of arterial tachycardia may notice the following symptoms:
- heightened heartbeat;
- pulsation of carotid arteries;
- sensation of jerks in the field of the heart;
- noise in the ears (with an increase in blood pressure);
- dizziness, pronounced weakness throughout the body (with reduced blood pressure).
In the presence of concomitant heart disease, the course of the underlying disease may be exacerbated. For example, a tachycardia on the background of heart failure provokes the development of edema.
Causes of arterial tachycardia
As noted earlier, arterial tachycardia is not an independent disease, therefore its occurrence is often associated with other pathologies. In particular, an increased heartbeat associated with changes in vascular tone occurs for two reasons:
Hypotension can be passed on heredity. Sometimes connected with the constitutional feature of the organism. In such cases, they speak of a physiological hypotonia, which does not lead to hemodynamic disorders.
Pathological hypotonia can be acute and chronic. The first form develops against the background of poisoning, severe injuries and injuries, accompanied by severe bleeding. Chronic hypotonia is often associated with heart defects and inadequate cardiac function, autonomic disorders, allergic reactions, intoxication with drugs that reduce pressure.
Hypertension in the circulatory system, called hypertension, is often manifested in a disease of the same name - arterial hypertension. There are also a number of other pathologies that are accompanied by hypertension. These include diseases of the kidneys, thyroid gland, heart defects, narrowing of the lumen of the aorta. All these diseases can contribute to the development of arterial tachycardia.
In some cases, the body for various reasons begins to produce substances that stimulate the narrowing of the vessels.This causes hypertension and, as a consequence, tachycardia. Also, misuse of the vasodilator may be complicated by hypertension, including tachycardia.
Types / photos of arterial tachycardia
Most often, heart rate increases occur in the type of sinus tachycardia, when the sinus rhythm does not change, but only a violation of the heart rate is observed. In this form of arrhythmias, there is often no significant cardiovascular disorder.A person feels only a palpitation, which is expressed in more or less continuous attacks.
In the presence of organic heart lesions in a patient with hypertension or hypotension, paroxysmal tachycardia may develop. It is characterized by sudden attacks, lasts from a few seconds to several hours. According to its prognostic value, paroxysmal tachycardia is less favorable than sinusia, therefore, in this condition, medical treatment is required.
Diagnosis of arterial tachycardia
Electrocardiography is prescribed to all patients with cardiac pathology. Tachycardia on ECG is expressed by the following signs:
- QRS complexes are expanded - the ventricles are involved in the pathological process.
- The rod P merges with the T wave, while the QRS complexes are unchanged - there is supra-ventricular tachycardia,
For the purpose of a more detailed study of cardiac activity, other research methods may be prescribed:
- magnetic resonance imaging;
- X-ray of the chest organs.
In order to clarify the causes of tachycardia, laboratory tests, ultrasounds of internal organs, and stress tests are conducted. The last method of diagnosis is especially relevant when it is uncommon and difficult to detect with standard ECG tachycardia
Treatment for arterial tachycardia
Basically symptomatic, but before the treatment of the underlying disease is performed. If these are diseases of the thyroid gland, then thyrotoxic drugs are used. In diseases of the kidneys, the nephrologist is prescribed appropriate medications to help regulate the normal process of urination. A similar situation is with heart malformations and hypertension.
To remove the manifestations of tachycardia, mainly antiarrhythmic drugs are used. Burn the attack with lidocaine, with its ineffectiveness, use beta-blockers, aimalin. For long-term treatment of arterial tachycardia, amiodarone is prescribed.
The reduction of blood pressure in combination with tachycardia is an indication for the use of norepinephrine or other amines with pressurized action.
It is important to restore the normal rhythm as soon as possible, as prolonged attacks are more difficult to undergo medical treatment and, in addition, coronary insufficiency may be provoked.
Video Therapeutic drugs for tachycardia
Prevention of arterial tachycardia
It is important to start the prophylaxis of arterial tachycardia even before the first symptoms of heart palpitations occur. If there is a tendency to this pathology on heredity or there were already insignificant tachycardias, it is necessary to prevent the development of pathology without delay.
- It is necessary to limit the effect of physical and emotional overvoltages.
- It is necessary to eat right, that the necessary components were delivered to the heart.
- Showing breathing exercises and relaxing massage, which help relieve tension from the vegetative-vascular system.
- Harmful habits should be eliminated in order not to aggravate the flow of both the underlying disease and symptomatic tachycardia.
- Moderate physical exercises help strengthen the cardiovascular system and reduce the risk of tachycardia attacks.